Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY – Chapter 2 – Family

Click here to guide you by chapters – Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V


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Click more parts of Chapter 2⇒ FamilyCommunityChurch Involvement;  Peers;  Media;  Effects of Pregnancy and Justification

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 Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study.  The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background, insight and to supplement the ideas  in the present investigation.

The tremendous speed of technological innovations requires, that the teenagers keep pace to the present-day changes.   Such as teenagers in the Philippine must be protected against the increasing trend of teenage pregnancy as it happened on this  latest decade.   And another decades of the same trend is already detrimental to the educational development of students and out of school youth in the country.  There are factors that trigger teenagers prone to be pregnant and that are Family,   Community   Church Involvement;  Peers and Media;


In the Philippines,  the NSO 2013, data showed that 13-14 percent  of all registered marriages are among teenagers below 20 years old while data from the National Youth Commission  show that the rate of teen pregnancy in the country is among the highest in the ASEAN region and the only country where the rate is increasing. The global issue of teen pregnancy is  the reason why the annual celebration of  World Population Day —  July 11 — lead by UNFPA, focuses on addressing teen pregnancy.  Benjamin de Leon, president of the Forum for Family Planning and Development in the Philippines, an NGO working on adolescent health issues, expressed alarm that almost 10 percent of all Filipino women aged 15-19 have already given birth. “This is a reality that we must address, he said.There is an urgency for all sectors “to work together to help address adolescent reproductive health issues and teen pregnancy because of the health and economic implications to the country,” he said. “A high rate of teen pregnancy also means a high risk for maternal deaths among our young girls.”

The Philippines joins the rest of the world in calling the attention of Government and civil society groups to help address  rising teen pregnancies through better policies, improved education and information campaigns and programs that can reach our adolescents  in schools, in communities or wherever they may be,” de Leon said. In here he points out that every Filipino family,community, church involvement and peers of a teenager has a great role on this.

Domini Torivillas  (The Philippine Star) updated July 11, 2013.   There is evidence supporting the Reproductive Health Law that calls for sexuality education  among young students. Not that for teachingthe kids to engage in “safe” sex, but rather, for telling them why they should not engage in early sex, and yes, before marriage. With regulated sexuality education, the young are informed about sex, pregnancy, unplanned and planned, instead of through the internet or pornographic magazines that somehow manage to reach them. Peep into their rooms  and see copies of Playboy and  Pent house and other sexy publications tucked between the bed sheets, and  for-adults-only videos in the internet.   When the family disregard sex education at home, might one way that teenagers will be innocent about sex consequences and prone to early sex. The other one is when the family has poor values and can’t understand the need of teenagers economically, socially and emotionally might one reason too of teenage pregnancy.

.           Discover Questions in the Philippines”, July 14, 2013 (Online Survey). The factors that  triggers the increased of Teenage Pregnancy in the country are: Family problems, broken family/complicated family, peer pressure/bad influence, Media/Television/Movies-Influential Trends (regarding sex), Pornography, lack of attention, love, caring,  lack of moral values,  failure to nurture with good principle, Curiosity, Lack of Information about Sex (sex education), use of Illegal drugs, lack of Guidance, Prostitution (involves poverty), unintelligent decisions etc.

The main thrust of this study is to find out the factors behind the teenage pregnancy.   It is clear that some other factors on teenage pregnancy such as  peer pressure, media / movies or television, use of illegal drugs and Lack of Information about Sex (sex education) and some other factors are rooted or sprouted from 2 factors only and that are due to absence of  “Family Intervention”  and Educational Information about sex (sex education).

In here it was disclosed by ”Press release courtesy of DKT Reproductive Health Inc.”, 2012: that the National Statistics Office revealed that from 2000-2010, teenage pregnancy in the Philippines has increased by 65%, despite an almost 14% decline in teenage marriage in the same period. The increase was most  notable among girls aged 15 to 19, among whom live births rose 38% from the Family Health Survey disclosed that the primary reasons for teenage pregnancy are insufficient access to information about sexual health and reproductive health services specifically targeted at teens.

Actually the first access on Education of sex will start at home but in spite of campaign of Philippine government. Filipino families remain hesitant to open up sex to their children. Instead the government has find hard to implement sex education because of Filipino beliefs and values. (Billy & Brewster,2002),The family members of an adolescent exert considerable influence over his or her sexual behavior. Many aspects of family life influence a teen’s decision to become sexually active, use contraception, or continue with a pregnancy. Socio-economic status, family structure, parental attitudes, and parental communication and support all play an important role in a teen’s decision-making.Children of parents with low educational attainment, occupation and income are more likely to have sex at an early age, not use contraception consistently and become pregnant or cause a pregnancy.The values and behavior demonstrated by family members regarding sexual risk taking and early childbearing influence the teen’s own attitudes and behavior.

Parents with permissive attitudes about teen sex or premarital sex, or negative attitudes about contraception have children who are more likely to have unprotected sex and become pregnant .(Kim, Ridger, Harper, & Yang, 1974) Teens look to their parents as role models and very often reproduce their behavior. Therefore, it is not surprising that teens are more likely to initiate sex and become pregnant if their parents are having sex outside of marriage, cohabiting with a romantic or sexual partner, have had a child outside of marriage or gave birth as an adolescent.

Click to continue ⇒ Community

Chapter 2-Family

Chapter 2-Community;

Chapter 2-Church Involvement;

Chapter 2-Peers;

Chapter 2-Media;

Chapter 2-Effects of Pregnancy and Justification

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Chapter 1 On Thesis Making (Background)




Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY: Introduction


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Click these to guide you by chapter: Chapter IChapter 11Chapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

Teenage Pregnancy – Title Page

Teenage Pregnancy – About the Author

Introduction;  Statement of the ProblemNull HypothesisSignificance of the StudyConceptual FrameworkIndependent and Dependent VariablesScope and Delimitation

Chapter I


Over the past few decades, teenage pregnancy has become a public concern which has generated a great deal of attention in the locality. Increasing awareness of the social and economic consequences of teenage pregnancy has led to a consensus opinion among policy makers  and the public that teenage pregnancy and child bearing is a significant social problem. It has been linked to an array of other social issues, such as welfare dependency, child health and well-being, out of wedlock births, fatherhood responsibility, child abuse and neglect, school drop-out and workforce development. (Torivillas, The Philippine Star, 2013).

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There was a strong agreement that teenage pregnancy rate is still on the increase and and every increased there has an additional consequences of abortions and fetus losses and yet reducing the number of births by this age group remains an important goal, Scott (1981).

The frequency of teenage pregnancy among the youth is alarming and has become more or less a fact of life in many nations of the world including Philippines. This remains both culturally deleterious and personally destructive. Teenage pregnancy has lots of effects on Educational Development of teenagers who are victims of this phenomenon. The Philippine government and other religious institutions  are studying every angle to look for ways to reduce untimely pregnancy among teenager. These are many factors which have been recognized by researchers and authors as being responsible for teenage pregnancy. It has been noted and well documented that today’s teenagers face more sexual temptation than previous generations. They seem to be more aware of sex and susceptible to the dangers of illicit sex. Today’s society is more bombarded with sexually oriented materials in the environment. The teenager are more vulnerable to sexual temptations. Health and Home, Philippines, Pregnant at 16, p.12-13 &22).

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According to Eruesgbefe, (2005). “Today’s teenagers have become more sexually active and promiscuous compared to their age mates of some thirty, forty or fifty years ago in the Nigerian situation”. He also asserted that, “The gradual departures from the traditions, customs and religious doctrine of the different ethnic groups on the premise of civilization have been largely responsible for this. Community and families must work hand in hand to shield their teenagers against these phenomena. Increases in both health and social problems are products of uncontrollable multiple sex partners among teenagers. Mainly because the youth cannot control their emotional feelings, they rush into untimely sex, in the belief that the act will be undetected.

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According to Albano (2001). In the Philippines, usually in a family, this category are not taught family life education by their parents and schools because of the sensitivity of the issue, this is contrary to the wide assumption that family life education is on. In practice, however, not much of sex education is taught in every Filipino family. Existing government family planning programs have been directed principally to married couples.

Maramag is still a growing community, cases of teenage pregnancy usually become a big issue to the neighbors and to the whole community. The family of the victim is in trauma discovering that their teenager was some months on her way already. Almost everybody is blaming the pregnant teenager of the consequences of her misdeeds. They focused their judgment to the victim but they did not bother to ask why and what were behind of indulging sex at teens and got pregnant not at the right time. The Philippine government through some of its agencies like Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)  and Department of Education (DepEd), introduced some strategies to minimize the increasing cases of pregnancy as observed after a decade in the Philippines. Sex education is being incorporated to the subject matters in school. RH bill could be a big help to let the teenagers know how to act about sex. Filipino families and communities is properly informed about their responsibilities to their youngsters with regards to sex.  While teenagers wherever they are must be reached to educate and be well informed how to counter early pregnancy.

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Religious sectors are also showing concerns about the teenagers by intensifying the activities at the church and detour  their interest while they are still young and not yet prepare to face the consequences brought about early sex. The churches now are also don’t want to left behind on nurturing the youths by instilling  to their minds  that early sex out of wed luck has consequences and the consequences hurt more than waiting. (Health and Home pp.13,2003).

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The researcher of this paper hope that after the study, she can impart some important strategies  and information she gained to the community, to the teachers, school administrators, parents and to the teenagers on how to minimize teenage pregnancy to students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

Click below to some parts of chapter 1 of this thesis:

Chapter I – Statement of the Problem

Chapter I – Null Hypothesis

Chapter I – Significance of the Study

Chapter I – Conceptual Framework;

Chapter – Independent and Dependent Variables

Chapter – Scope and Delimitation

Chapter – Definition of Terms

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Making;

Steps on making the “Background

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How to Make Introduction or Chapter 1 Of Thesis Writing -Background

Steps on making the “Background”:  (Effects of Disruptive Behavior on the School Performance of Grade IV and V Pupils in Cabanglasan District.)

5.  The researcher must cite some existing previous study.  It must be stated whether there has already a study similar to the study chosen: See example below:

(This served as your  5th paragraph in your “Introduction”.  For 1st and 4th paragraph, please click this link  Chapter 1 On Thesis Writing (Problem-Rationale).

“Numerous research studies have concluded that a complex interaction or combination of factors associated with disruptive behavior leads the child and young adolescents to exhibit extreme disruptive behavior in the future if not given much attention.  Research studies have shown that these disruptive behavior can be decreased or even prevented at school, it will depend on the efforts exerted of the pupil, the teachers, and school administrators by improving their school facilities and policies.     Most importantly, efforts should be directed by the parents by decreasing or eliminating exposure of children to violence in home and community both financial for this is the usual reason why a certain pupil exhibited some sort of disruptive behavior.  (Fernandez, 2003, p 108).”

6.  Mentioned recommendation or contributions of some other studies to the existing problem. Such as this:

(This served as your 6th paragraph in your “Introduction” ).

         Many of the factors causing disruptive behavior disorders happen very early in a Childs’ life. It is important to recognize and act on the problems as early as possible. The Treatment that has shown the best results is a combination of: specialized skills training, behavior therapies to teach young people how to control and express feeling in a healthy ways and coordination of services with the young person’s school and other involved agencies.  Kazdin AE. Research design in clinical psychology 4th ed. Boston: Allyn& Bacon; 2003.” And with this:

7.   (This served as your 7th paragraph in your “Introduction”).

Rynders (2006) and Barton, Richard and Wenglinsky (1998) address an instructional method called “Character Counts!”, developed by the Josephson Institute of Ethics. “If children internalize the right values, and their actions are informed by those values, they will become responsible citizens in the school hall and school room, as they will in the community as a whole”.

8.  Mentioned that there has already identified cases of problem existed in the target area.

(This served as your 8th paragraph in your “Introduction” ).

“The Cabanglasan District Teachers are aware of the disrupted behavior showed by some of the Grade IV & V pupils  in where the children showed a wide range of behaviors: explosive temper tantrums, physical aggression, fighting, threats or attempts to hurt others (including homicidal thoughts), cruelty toward animals.     Thus disrupted behavior in schools of Grade IV & V pupils in Cabanglasan District occurs in many different forms, from taunting and teasing to physical assaults and destruction of property.”

“Even though disruptive behavior was just a part of growing up, but it affects to the school performance not only the pupil who did the disruptions and affecting too all the individual found in the school during classroom instructions.”

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How to Make Introduction or Chapter 1 Of Thesis Writing -Problem

How to Make Chapter 1 (Problem-Rationale)

The first part of thesis is called Chapter 1 and others preferred to call it as “Introduction”. Either of these two has all the same purpose. It is always refers to “The Problem”. “The problem”  comprises of  rationale and background.

Steps on making “Rationale”:  (Effects of Disruptive Behavior on the School Performance of Grade IV and V Pupils in Cabanglasan District.)

1.  Say something or introduced the chosen topic.

The researcher must relate the grounds of the topic in relation to his field study.   The necessity of the said topic must be clearly explained so that the reader can understand how important the study was. In as much as possible, the researcher must mention some references.  Below is the example of how to introduce  the topic entitled,  “ Effects of Disruptive Behavior on the School Performance of Grade IV and V Pupils in Cabanglasan District. ” (See below-part only of the said study – This  served as your  1st paragraph in your “Introduction” ).

“There is a great concern about the incidence of factors associated with disrupted behavior among children. This complex and troubling issue needs to be carefully understood by parents, teachers, and other adults.  Children as young as in elementary schools can show disrupted behavior.  Parents and other adults who witness the behavior may be concern; however, they often hope that the young child will “grow out of it.” Disrupted behavior in a child at any age always needs to be taken seriously. It should not be quickly dismissed as “just a phase they’re going through. (Rynders, 2006, p 216).”

2.  Present the first reason/point supporting that certain topic.

In the case of the above mentioned topic, “Effects of Disruptive Behavior on the School Performance of Grade IV and V Pupils in Cabanglasan District”, the researcher has decided to choose this topic for the fact that in their school, disruptive behavior has already affecting the school performance of the pupils doing such disruptions.  (See below-part only of the said study – This  served as your  2nd paragraph in your “Introduction” ).

“Pupils having disruptive behavior affect their school performance such as exhibiting inattention, pupils who have this kind of behavior usually did not listen to teachers, instead they did anything such as reading their books not relevant to their subject matters, or scrambling their bags now and then during class instructions.  That kind of behavior being displayed by pupils usually could not absorb their lesson resulted to low grades (Albano, Jr. 2003).”

3. Present the 2nd reason/point supporting that certain topic.

            The researcher has found another point on the above topic, and that was disruptive behavior disrupts classroom instructions.           (See below-part only of the said study – This  served as your  3rd paragraph in your “Introduction” ).

“Persistent tardiness and laziness” is one of among the numerous disruptive behavior that a pupil was doing especially in rural areas of developing countries, such as Philippines and Nigeria.  There were lots of reasons why children from developing countries exhibiting such behavior such as; the distance of homes of a child to the school in which the child needed to walk some kilometers every morning, when the child   arrived late, classmates will turn their heads to the late comers enough to disrupt class instruction. Another was when the teachers kept reminding the child of not submitting his assignments/homework or projects not on time or never submit it which delayed the teachers’ strategies on implementing her lesson plan for a target period of time. (Fernandez, R., 2008).”

4.  Present the 3rd reason/point supporting the same certain topic.

The researcher has found another point on the above topic, and that was disruptive behavior affecting not only the pupils doing it but also all the individual present the class.  (See below-part only of the said study – This served as your  4th paragraph in your “Introduction”.

“Disobedience, bullying, naughtiness and some other kind of disruptive behavior during classroom instructions will not only affects the one who did the disruptions but all the individual found in the class or in school who witness such behavior.  Disruptive behavior of pupils will affect the efficiency of the teachers during class instructions.   It also affects the concentrations and or interest of children to learn of a certain topic when there was presence of disruptions (Albano, Jr. 2003).” – To finish the introduction; make the 5th-8th paragraph by clicking  (How to Make Introduction or Chapter  1 Of Thesis Writing (Background) 

Thesis Making? Wanted Someone to Help or to Coach? Call or text to 09268212800

Teaching and Learning Thesis/Dissertation Is My Hobby

My tutorial was started not right away on “thesis making” but that was started when I was seven 7 years old doing it to my younger sisters and brothers from their preschool until their college education. It was still clear how I brought and cater them to “protestant church” who have the only religion having a “bible study” on their church for children during vacations in our remote place. On the evening, I was there to coach and tutor them of their activities for the next day. To preview my tutorial activities from the day they were still on their preschool up to the moment they finished their college were somewhat like a long way to imagine but doing it was not an obligation to me but an enjoyment. It was somewhat like a hobby, doing an art or a craft that after the efforts of sowing, there I saw and able to watch how they propelled by doing extremely well over their peers academically and on extracurricular activities in school.

It’s nice to recall how my sister was so excited informing the result of her assignments every time I was the one who answered her assignments on any of her masteral subjects saying, “Mother, I got flat one (1) on my assignment !!!!!”, my sisters used to call me “mother” since I was in my high school days as their “tag” to me of being closed to them, while the rating of one (1) is equivalent to no other but the highest rating.

I am happy manipulating my laptop and setting in front of my computer with something to think and research to anyone who will be remembering me and say “thank you” after the efforts of doing a favor or after helping them their assignments on masteral subjects and or to their thesis making.

I know that majority of the students in masteral subjects were already employed or have already landed a job and hoping that one day they will be promoted out of their academic qualification. There were there also enrolling their masteral subjects and willing to learn by researching out of the weekend assignments but the workload from the school as the case for the school teachers, refraining them to do so. There were there also enrolling their masteral subjects who the know how on technical capabilities such as operating computer for researching were limited and relying only to their school library were giving them not as updated as in internet.

There were there also who enrolled on masteral degrees such as in the case of local and national government employees that their sense of sight and concentration were already impaired. They now in need for someone to assist and do the researching to meet their workload in the office and as well as to their responsibilities relative to their respective families.

So, share about your trouble on your thesis by posting. Let us see what I can do for you.

Pictures, Food, Kids' Speeches, Thesis Making and Feasibility Studies'

My tutorial was started not right away on “thesis making” but that was started when I was seven 7 years old doing it to my younger sisters and brothers from their preschool until their college education.    It was still clear how I brought and cater them to “protestant church” who have the only religion having a “bible study” on their church for children during vacations in our remote place.  On the evening, I was there to coach and tutor them of their activities for the next day.  To preview my tutorial activities from the day they were still on their preschool up to the moment they finished their college were somewhat like a long way to imagine but doing it was not an obligation to me but an enjoyment.   It was somewhat like a hobby, doing an art or a craft that after the efforts of sowing, there I saw…

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