7 Steps To Make Introduction of the Thesis / Dessertation

Introduction of the thesis is made up of Problem or rationale and a background.

The Step 1-4 is for the rationale or problem while the last 3 steps and that are step 5-7  for the background of the study in which each answer of every step will serve as a paragraph which make a  total of seven (7) paragraphs to make the Introduction through.

Step 1 – is about introducing the chosen topic and the necessity why a certain topic is helpful for a study in relation to the community / environment or in response to the efficiency of the researcher’s work.  If the topic is about Teenage Pregnancy of Students, then it has expected that the researcher will state the need for a study because it is already rampant in an identified community or in a certain school or other reasons being observed by the researcher.

Step 2 – is stating the first reason why that certain topic has been chosen by the researcher.

Step 3 – is stating the 2nd reason why that topic has chosen by the researcher.

Step 4 – is stating the 3rd reason why that specific topic has been chosen by the researcher.

Step 5 – is stating that the study has been its similar and site a certain place or situations.

Step 6 – is stating that this certain topic has already existed and try to mention recommendations or contributions of such study.

Step 7 – is stating that the said problem is already existing in a specific place in where it is the target of the researcher’s study.


Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Main Livelihood Infrastructure Resources

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Population, Households


Titay is endowed with natural resources, particularly natural forest and rich agricultural land which are currently the source of economic and livelihood opportunities for the residents. Wide area for rice valley and some potential agricultural lands for rubber, coconut and other agricultural products. We are also rich in mineral resources such manganese, chromites, copper and gold found in different barangays such as Culasian, Mabini, San Isidro and Longilog. There are more mineral deposits in our municipality but mostly unexplored. Titay has also protection forest for water conservation located at Barangay Culasian.

Municipality of Titay has more than 8 waterfalls, most still unexplored. These are Tagbilat Falls, Cobacob Falls, Malagandis Falls, Gomotoc Falls, Basay Falls, Dalisay Falls, Diokoy Falls and Culasian Falls. This attributed to the vastness of its forest covered with depths that can only reached by foot. And this may have contributed to Titay’s water being the best tasting in the entire province. Titay has also Underground River in Barangay Mate, and caves in New Canaan and Moalboal.

Forest Resources

The forest area in the Municipality of Titay covers  15,602 hectares. It is found in 22 barangays and these are considered already as second growth forest. Barangays with no forests are Poblacion, Azusano,Camanga,Dalangin,Dalangin Muslim, Kitabog, Mabini, and Poblacion Muslim. The forest abound with such hardwood and dipthero carp trees spices like yakal, apitong, tanguile, red and white lawaan, etc. Aside from lumber, non-timber and other minor forest products like different species of rattan, nito, and other wildlife for some purposes are also available.

Physical/Infrastructure Resources

  1. Transportation Network

                Efficient transport facilities are necessary to support the basic production sector. It serve as incentives for investor to set/expand their investment plans. The municipality of Titay is accessible by land transportation. The National Highway to Zamboanga del Norte traverse right through the town. There are utility vehicles plying the  inter-municipal route; jeeps, single  motors ( habal-habal), tricycles, buses, vans, cargo trucks, tankers, containers  from Ipil to Titay and vice versa at all hours of the day.

Buses of Rural Transit Inc. can be available bound to Ipil and Zamboanga del Norte , Zamboanga del Sur and Zamboanga City. It is available in every 30 minutes during day and night time.  Jeepneys and Single Motors ( Habal-Habal) are available going to  Barangay San Antonio and all barangays going to West and North Bound. Single Motors are also available going to East bound and it can also be reached with Four (4) wheels vehicles but no public utility jeeps plying the route. Going to North and South bound can all be reached by all types of vehicles. There are  lots of vehicles utilized for private services in the town.

We have bus terminal and “Habal-Habal” (Motor) terminal located at public Market with Comfort room for men and women

Map 8 –  Road Network Map

Road Network Map 2

2.2.2 Income and Poverty Incidence

2.2.3 Existing and Proposed Land Uses

Land use classification includes agricultural, industrial, commercial, residential, recreation areas, critical/ conservation areas, undeveloped areas/ danger areas, others.

Titay CLUP and Cadastral Survey has not yet approved which made the Titay Municipal Planning and Development Council  hesitant to provide the specific area for the Existing and Proposed Land Use while the Titay Municipal Assessor has not also able to undergo a complete Tax Mapping to determine the area of every category on Land Use. So the Titay Local Shelter Planners (Titay LSP) agreed only to show the volume and speed of the assessment of the Categories of Land Use with regards to assessment of the real property from Assessment Statistical Records 2010 (See Table 12 ) taken  from the Office of the Municipal Assessor of this municipality.  In addition to these, table and map will be presented for support.

The Map below shows the proposed and some other are already existing land use of the municipality and it has two classifications of land uses as per MOA of the LGU and the DENR and that are Alienable and Disposable Area with an area of 20,635 hectares while Forest land has an area of 15,602 hectares which make a total area of 36,237 hectares of the municipality for Titay. Forest land is 43.06% and 56.94% for Alienable and Disposable Area to the total land area of Titay.

The Forest Area has been inhabited with stakeholders and these stakeholders are using the land mainly for agricultural purposes by planting perennial crops while others are planting with annual and semi annual crops.  The LGU has a Memorandum of Agreement with DENR that land classified as Forest Land must be utilized by stakeholders by planting perennial crops such as rubber, fruit trees and some other trees. Annual and semi-annual crops are discouraged and no longer advisable as stipulated in the MOA. While the Alienable and Disposable Area is just like the Forest, it is utilized also by the stakeholders for agricultural purposes. Aside from agricultural, this is also utilized as residential, commercial, industrial and some other uses.

As Reflected earlier (See Map 3 – Slope map) that 08% slope (21,001.9 ha.), level to undulating and 8-18% slope (4,944.902 ha.) of undulating to rolling has the largest and 2nd to the largest area respectively being used by stakeholders. In here, all the possible land uses is applicable just like as residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural and some other uses. Whereas the 30-50% slope (3,138.035 ha.) will be utilized as agricultural as long as it is planted with fruit trees or rubber trees. All the slopes can be used to agricultural purposes except the above 50% slope which is mountainous and where the LGU and the DENR has come to a MOA that this  area is put into a protected zone and considered that only premium trees can be planted and no other. Those trees that are already existing will be preserved and cutting of trees is completely disallowed.




















Map – 9 Land Classification


Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Population, Households

Chapter 2 / Hazard Map

Table – 3 Household Population by Urban and Rural Barangay and Average Household Size    Year  2010

Barangay Population


Number of Household Average Household Size
A.Urban Barangay    
1.Poblacion 6,764 2,300 2.94
Sub-total 6,764 2,300 .94
B. Urbanizing  
2.San Antonio 3,241 639 5.07
Sub-total 3,241 639 5.07
C. Rural Barangay  
1.Achasol 1,859 546 3.40
2.Azusano 944 225 4.20
3.Bangco 1,551 311 4.99
4.Camanga 1,041 255 4.08
5.Culasian 1,186 278 4.27
6.Dalangin 2,577 554 4.65
7.Dalangin Muslim 560 103 5.44
8.Dalisay 1,498 338 4.43
9.Gomotoc 881 174 5.06
10.Imelda 1,094 176 6.22
11.Kipit 1,678 291 5.77


3,664 620 5.91
13.La Libertad 591 147 4.02
14. Longilog 852 224 3.80
15.Mabini 1,197 233 5.14
16. Malagandis 1,315 267 4.93
17. Mate 925 203 4.56
18. Moalboal 547 111 4.93
19. Namnama 2,077 602 3.45
20. New  Canaan 660 193 3.42
21. Palomoc 2,750 546 5.04
22. Pob. Muslim 759 199 3.81
23. Pulidan 1,219 250 4.88
24. San Isidro 1,104 543 2.03
25. Santa Fe 1,474 356 4.14
26. Supit 919 154 5.97
27. Tugop 1,020 238 4.29
28. Tugop Muslim 509 128 3.98
Sub-total 36,451 8,265 4.41
Total 46,456 11,204 4.15


Source: 2010 Census of Population and Housing. For the no. of HH- 2009 NHTS ( 4Ps)


























Figure -2 2010 Most Populated Barangays


Figure 1. Tempo of Urbanization

TABLE 3:   Urbanization Levels for the past 20 years

 Year Barangay Population Tempo of Urbanization (%)
Urban Rural Total
1990 5,367 26,627 31,994 16.77
2000 6,746 36,958 43,704 15.44
2005 6,988 40,225 46,674 14.97
2007 9,839 33,884 43,723 22.50
2010 6,764 36,451 46,456 14.56
Barangays Area


HH Popula


Pop. Density

( has)

Area in sq.km. Pop. Density

( sq.km)

A. Urban Barangay
1.Poblacion 1,388 6,764 4.87 13.88 487
Sub-total 1,388 6,764 4.87 13.88 487
B. Urbanizing
1. San Antonio 1,998 3,241 1.62 19.98 162
Sub-total 1,998 3,241 1.62 19.98 162
C. Rural Barangay
1.Achasol 1,238 1,859 1.50 12.38 150
2.Azusano 495 944 1.91 4.95 191
3.Bangco 1,312 1,551 1.18 13.12 118
4.Camanga 1,842 1,041 .57 18.42 57
5.Culasian 3,579 1,186 .33 35.79 33
6.Dalangin 1,020 2,577 2.53 10.20 253
7.Dalangin Muslim 244 560 2.29 2.44 229
8.Dalisay 4,198 1,498 .36 41.98 36
9.Gomotoc 2,312 881 .38 23.12 38
10.Imelda 1,789 1,094 .61 17.89 61
11.Kipit 7,361 1,678 .23 73.61 23
12.Kitabog 1,089 3,664 3.36 10.89 336
13.La Libertad 1,458 591 .41 14.58 41
14.Longilog 3,035 852 .28 30.35 28
15.Mabini 1,659 1,197 .72 16.59 72
16.Mate 1,631 1,315 .82 16.31 82
17. Malagandis 1,028 925 .90 10.28 90
18. Moalboal 860 547 .64 8.60 64
19. Namnama 2,075 2,077 1.00 20.75 100
20. New Canaan 3,037 660 .22 30.37 22
21. Palomoc 2,035 2,750 1.35 20.35 135
22. Poblacion Muslim 720 759 1.05 7.20 105
23. Pulidan 4,423 1,219 .28 44.23 28
24. San Isidro 1,049 1,104 1.05 10.49 105
25. Santa Fe 4,343 1,474 .34 43.43 34
26. Supit 2,446 919 .38 24.46 38
27. Tugop 868 1,020 1.17 8.68 117
28. Tugop Muslim 468 509 1.08 4.68 108
Sub-total 57,614 36,451 .63 576.14 63
Total 61,000 46,456 .76 610.00 76

Population Density, Gross Density and Built-Up Density CY 2010

Source: NSO 2010, computed base on the data & formula using CLUP Guidebook Volume 2

The most densely populated Barangay is Poblacion with 487 persons per square kilometre to its geographical location with 1,388 sq. kms. Next is Kitabog with 336 persons per square kilometres. Followed by Barangay Dalangin and Dalangin Muslim with 253 and 229 persons per squares kilometre respectively. Barangay New Canaan remains the most sparely populated with only 22 persons per square kilometres due to unstable peace and order in the area. There should be an adequacy of evaluation in terms of social, economic and environmental potentials for development.

 Densely Barangays

Figure -4

Figure 5 Growth Rate ( 1975 – 2010)

TABLE 6:   Historical Growth of Population

Year Population Increase or Decrease

Growth Rate for the Locality

1970 19,008
1975 20,005 997 1.03
1980 24,983 4,978 4.54
1990 31,994 7,011 2.50
1995 36,206 4,212 3.32
2000 42,692 6,486 1.33
2007 43,723 1,031 .79
2010 46,456 2,733 1.53

Source: Approved CLUP (1994-2004) , NSO 2007, 2010


The population trend of Titay shows a continued increase from the year 1970 to 2010. From 1975 to 1980, it shows the highest growth rate due to unstable peace and order of the nearby municipalities. Table 5 and figure 4 shows the historical trend of population.














Table -6 Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CDR) for the Last Five Years

Period NO. CBR % Increase/Decrease from Previous Year NO. CDR % Increase/Decrease from Previous Year
2006 1,526 35.68 132 3.09
2007 1,372 31.38 (4.30) 244 5.58 2.49
2008 1,212 27.12 (4.26) 255 5.70 .12
2009 2,042 44.72 17.60 246 5.38 (.32)
2010 1,482 31.76 (12.96) 122 2.61 (2.77)

Source: LCR, MHO, LGU,Titay, Z.S.(average)

Figure 2. CBR & CDR for the last 5 years




Crude Birth Rate (CBR) of the municipality is placing an annual average rate of 34 births per 1,000 populations.  Year 2009 marks the highest CBR at 44.72 births per 1,000 populations. The fluctuating trend in the crude birth rate somehow implies the municipality’s conscious effort of the population management program and the various social safety nets. Looking at the crude death rate (CDR) or the total deaths from all ages indicate a constant growth over the last 4 years and it dropped down in 2010 by 2.77 deaths per 1,000 populations.

TABLE 7:   Literacy Rate of Population 5 years old and Over, by Sex  CY 2010

  Male Female Both Sexes
No. % No. % No. %
Population 7 years old over 21,402 46.07 19,756 42.53 41,158 60.89
Literacy Rate (%) 20,370 95.18% 18,804 95.18% 39,174 95.18%
Illiterate 1,032 2.41% 952 2.41% 1,984 4.82%
Total 21,402 100% 19,756 100% 41,158 100%

                Source: NEDA Region IX (www.neda9.gov.ph/), Pop. 2010 using formula, NSO 2010


Literacy refers to the ability of population who have at least completed a year in elementary education to the population seven years old and over. 1990 Census on Population and Housing showed that 89.83% literacy rate of Titay. Table 7 reveals that out of the population 7 years old and over reached the highest literacy rate with 95.18%. The literacy rate is quite high. This shows that the municipality completely establishes primary and elementary school in all barangays of Titay. In every 1.05 household populations literate there is .05 illiterate in 2010. More illiterate in male population than female as shown in table 7 with 7.75% male over female.


Year 2010




(in has.)



A.      Urban
1.Poblacion 6,764 13.79 1,388 4.69
B.      Urbanizing
2.San Antonio 3,241 8.40 1,998 1.99
C.      Rural
1.Achasol 1,859 3.97 1,238 1.51
2. Azusano 944 1.89 495 1.80
3. Bangco 1,551 3.30 1,312 1.19
4. Camanga 1,041 2.17 1,842 .55
5. Culasian 1,186 2.94 3,579 .39
6. Dalangin 2,577 5.87 1,020 2.71
7. Dalangin Muslim 560 1.089 244 2.10
8. Dalisay 1,498 3.21 4,198 .36
9. Gomotoc 881 1.85 2,312 .38
10. Imelda 1,094 2.26 1,789 .60
11. Kipit 1,678 3.10 7,361 .197
12. Kitabog 3,664 6.56 1,089 2.85
13. La Libertad 591 1.56 1,458 .51
14. Longilog 852 1.92 3,035 .30
15. Mabini 1,197 2.47 1,659 .70
16. Malagandis 1,315 2.83 1,028 1.30
17. Mate 925 1.95 1,631 .56
18. Moalboal 547 1.18 860 .64
19. Namnama 2,077 4.36 2,075 .99
20. New Canaan 660 1.80 3,037 .28
21. Palomoc 2,750 4.97 2,035 1.15
22. Poblacion Muslim 759 1.46 720 .96
23. Pulidan 1,219 2.67 4,423 .29
24. San Isidro 1,104 3.93 1,049 1.77
25. Santa Fe 1,474 3.10 4,343 .34
26. Supit 919 1.76 2,446 .34
27.  Tugop 1,020 2.55 868 1.37
28. Tugop Muslim 509 1.13 468 1.14
Total 46,456 100 61,000 .76

Source: NSO

CHAPTER V of thesis entitled Disruptive Behavior of Kids / Children


Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations


This chapter presents the summary and findings, discuss relevant conclusions, suggest recommendations, in the light of the conclusions drawn from the study.


This study attempted to determine the extent of factors associated with disruptive behavior affecting the school performance of Grade IV and V pupils in Cabanglasan District, school year 2013-2014.

This study employed the descriptive method.  The respondent were 43 pupils of Cabanglasan District, Cabanglasan, Bukidnon.  The extent of disruptive behavior of the pupils was taken based on the answers in the questionnaire of their teachers. Teachers observation to the respondents during class hours or during classroom instruction were been reflected by answering the said questionnaires. Statistical tools were  _____________________.

The instrument was administered personally by the researcher to the teachers that have pupils who were identified by them as having disruptive behavior of grade 4 and grade 5 pupils in Cabanglasan District, school year 2013-2014.  Purposive sampling was used on selecting the respondents, picking all the cases that meet the criterion. The teachers answered their questionnaire during vacant time and or anytime that were convenient to them.  Other teachers answered their questionnaire at home.



Based on the data gathered the major findings of the study are the following:

  1. Majority of the respondents are male (39), aged 11 years old and up (27), parents who are elementary graduate of (27) mother with (34) father, having 4-6 in the family (29) and belong to a poor family or families that were beneficiaries of “Pantawid Program” (31).
  2. All of the respondents identified by their teachers as having a disruptive behavior were subjected to “parents’ intervention” (43) or 100%. Some of them have been subjected once only (16) while the majority has subjected to 2 times and more (27).
  3. Generally, the extent of factors associated with disruptive behavior in terms of overt inattentiveness, misbehavior and aggressiveness were rated disruptive behavior while persistent tardiness and laziness has rated highly disruptive behavior. The rating of the respondents that are disruptive reconciled to the result that all of the respondents were subjected to “parents’ intervention” not only once but some were twice and even more.
  4. It was found out that there has no significant difference on the extent of factors associated with disruptive behavior affecting the school performance of pupils in terms of misbehavior, overt inattentiveness, aggressiveness and persistent tardiness & laziness which has a significant difference in terms of gender as demographic profile.
  5. It was found out that children having disruptive behavior and highly disruptive behavior affects their school performance to the extent of poor rating in overall their grades.



In the light of the findings, the following conclusions emerged:

  1. There are more male pupils in Cabanglasan District who were on their age of 11 years old and up who are not on their proper age against the grade 4 and grade 5 level whose parents were elementary graduate with enough number of children in the family and majority are poor families. Therefore these children are product of very occupied and busy parents who cannot give enough support financially, emotionally to their children especially towards school programs and activities.
  2. The greater the grade 4 and grade 5 pupils are exposed to disruptive behavior in terms of overt inattentiveness, misbehavior, aggressiveness and highly disruptive behavior on persistent tardiness and laziness during classroom instructions, the greater the chances for them to be affected in their school performance.
  3. “Parents intervention” is the right move for the teachers to do but not just end that way. Teachers / school administrators and parents must set down to talk about existing behavior of the pupils especially to persistent tardiness and laziness which rated highly disruptive.
  4. Grade IV and V pupils were affected when there are disruptive behavior that occurred such as overt inattentiveness, misbehavior, aggressiveness, and persistent tardiness and laziness. Such interruptions, not along the respondent or the one who made disruptions were affected but all the individual found in the class.
  5. Parents’ intervention among pupils cannot guarantee that disruptive behavior will be minimized in the class unless there has something to introduce to educate the parents of what is “parenthood”.


Based on the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are presented:

  1. Dep-Ed authorities like school administrator, teachers, and staff should maximize their capacity and initiative to tap stakeholders support like parents to work hand in hand in the improvements and giving/formulating interventions for the pupils having disruptive behavior to learn more virtues, skills and uplift the pupils’ attitude and interests.
  2. Dep-Ed officials and stakeholders such as Parents Teachers Associations, must design a program/project as a sort of alternatives/ options for the pupils such that parents are an essential part of treatment for their child’s disruptive behavior disorder. The most effective interventions seen are “parent-based.”  Stakeholders such as Barangay Officials and PTA will work for this by promoting seminars that can educate the parents who are majority elementary graduate.  This will be realized as early as possible when Dep-Ed will tap its activites during “Pantawid Program’ meetings or gathering which usually done not less than one in a month in their respective barangays.Through educating them that would let them enlightened their responsibilities as parents and able to understand about the behavior of their children and to make alternatives to improve it.
  3. Dep-Ed communities of stakeholders must work collectively to plan in service trainings for teachers as well as school administrators on matters pertaining to minimizing or even control the disruptive behavior of children by improving their school facilities and some other priorities for the childrens’ welfare and be good citizen in the future. A sort of a program or organizations that parents and children will interact with the cooperation/guidance of Dep-Ed personnel.
  1. Diane L. Smallwood and Evangeline Kern “Defusing Violent Behavior in Schools” Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
    2.   Chris D. Erickson, Ph.D. and Monica M. Megivern, Ed.D. A study “COMPARING TREATMENTS FOR AGGRESSION AMONG CHILDREN EXPOSED TO VIOLENCE”  at George Washington University,
    3. Department of Counseling/Human and Organizational Studies,Washington, DC.
    4. Chris D. Erickson, Ph.D. and Monica M. Megivern, Ed.D. at George Washington University, Department of Counseling/Human and Organizational Studies,Washington, DC.
    5.  William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & H. Michael O’Connor, MD – Emergency Medicine
  2. Barton, P.E.,Coley, R.J., & Wenglinsky,H. (1998). Order in the Classroom: Violence, Discipline and Student Achievement. Policy Information Center: Research Division. University of the philippines
  3. http://www.keystosaferschools.com/Reports/Order%20in%20the%20Classroom-Violence,%20Discipline.pdf
  4. Brannon, D. (2008). Character Education: It’s a Joint Responsibility. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 44(2), 62-65. Retrieved from ERIC: 2816294
  5. Brimi, H. (2009). Academic Instructors or Moral Guides? Moral Education in America and the Teacher’s Dilemma. Clearing House, 82(3), 125-130. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete: 35608363
  6. Bryan, L. (2005). Once Upon a Time: A Grimm Approach to Character Education. Journal of Social Studies Research, 29(1), 3-6. Retrieved from ERIC 161376614
  7. Butler-Banks, C. (2010, February 4,). PRIDE in school and self: Waterloo Middle School uses character education to improve academics. New York Teacher, LI(9), 18-
  8. Bulach, C. (2002). Implementing a Character Education Curriculum and Assessing Its Impact on Student Behavior. Clearing House, 76(2), 79. Retrieved from ERIC:9270870
  9. Tubigon, E. (2013) Looking at Filipino pre-service teacher’s value for education and Childrens’ Character.  The Asia- Pacific Education Researcher.
  10. Fernandez, R. (2003) Why Kids Disrupt? “Health and Home Philippines”
  11. Kim-Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton

R (2006): What are the “warning signs” for violent behavior in children?

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Hazard Map

10. Hazard Fault and Epicenter

The map below (Map 7) that commercial sites of Titay is located in between of these 2 faults, where also the municipal hall is situated and having a distance of 316.70 meters away from 200/severe measure fault line which meant as the most severe impact.

The very center of the fault lines will shake minimally compared to the 200 meters wide periphery of the fault lines which has the highest impact.

The Planners has considered the displaced units inhabited with  299 and 191 households  found densely  in barangay Palomoc and Namnama respectively and are coencidentially situate along the 200 meters wide periphery  which is the most impact portion of fault line due to the presence of the national high way and barangay hall going to Tampilisan, Zamboanga del Norte.

2.2 Urban Developments Trends

2.2.1 Population Size and Structure


Table -2  Population Composition by School-Age, Working-Age, Dependent-Age Group and Sex   Year 2010

Age Group Both Sexes Male Female Sex Ratio

(Male to Female

No. % No. %
School going population
     Pre school (3-6) 4,617 2,481 53.74 2,136 46.26 116 : 86
     Elementary (7-12) 7,320 3,879 52.99 3,441 47.01 113 : 89
     Secondary (13-16) 4,605 2,467 53.57 2,138 46.43 115 : 87
     Tertiary (17-21) 4,427 2,365 54.29 2,062 46.58 115 : 87
Working age (15 & 64) 27,218 14,778 54.30 12,440 45.71 119 : 84
Labor Force (15 & over) 29,047 15,772 53.28 13,275 45.70 119 : 84
Dependent Population
      Young (0-14) 17,935 9,556 53.28 8,379 46.72 114 : 88
     Old ( 65-over) 1,549 818 52.81 731 47.19 112 : 89

        Source: DepEd and Computed based on the data on Household Population by Age Group.

Titay has 43,723 household populations in 2007. It increased by 5.88% or 2,733 by 2010.  8.52% of the total provincial population of Zamboanga Sibugay comprised the household population of the municipality of Titay. Male populations dominated by 5.62% over female. There are 52.81% males and 47.19% females which mean there are 111 males in every 89 females. In age group, 9.94% of the total population are pre schoolers; 15.75% is elementary; 9.52% tertiary; 58.59% belongs to working age; 62.52% labor force and 41.19% are dependent populations. Among the age group, Labor force has the biggest in terms of population size followed by working age. Old dependents comprised the smallest among the age group as shown in table 1.

The municipal sex ratio declines in the older age groups. It characterized by a typical broad base at the bottom consisting a large numbers of children and a narrow top made up of a relatively small number of elderly. Majority of the population under school going population is dominated by elementary with 7,320 or 35.42% of the total school going population. It also shows that male dominated female resulting a sex ratio of 115 male for every 87 females.

Labor force population are also dominated by males with a sex ratio of 119 males in every 84 females. In the same period, depended population which consist of young and old population are dictated by males over female with a sex ratio of 113 males in every 88 females.

Titay Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 Slopes / Hazard Areas

Chapter 1 


Land characterized as mountainous and strongly sloping is unevenly distributed in different barangays. Only Barangay Azusano and Dalangin Muslim are plain and flat. The mountainous areas are found in barangays of Kipit, San Isidro, New Canaan, Namnama and Tugop Muslim. Barangay Kipit has its peak  of 893 meters above sea level. The rest of the land is moderately sloping and nearly gentle its nature.

It is shown on the map that 0-8% slope is level to undulating and so far it covers the largest portion of the area of the municipality and it is followed with 8-18% slope, undulating to rolling which has an area of 4,944.049 hectares. The least occupied slope is above 50% slope and considered as mountainous having an area of 2,318.179 hectare

2.1.5 Vulnerability to Multiple Hazards

Landslides and Flood

The plains of Azusano usually visited with floods almost every year and leaved damages every time there floods almost every year and leaved damages everytime the flood subsided.

The Office of the Agricuture ( See Annex 8 – Titay, Lowland Rice Damage, 2010) has recorded lowland rice crop damage of 5 Barangays and that were Namnama, Palomoc, Achasol and Azusano.  There has a total of 400.12 hectares of land affected with flood which resulted to an estimate of 652.96 metric tons of rice loss in which amounted to P 31, 374,409.22.  There are cases of landslides in some barangays like in the case of Palomoc but there has no damage recorded or loss of lives and propereties.

Municipality of Titay has hazard areas and that are landslides and flood.  The most prone on land slides is found almost all the area of barangay San Isidro, portion of Longilog, San Antonio and Dalisay considering the 50% and up slope. There are also barangays prone to landslides and that are found in Palomoc, Culasian, Malagandis, Supit, Tugop Muslim and kipit. While barangay prone to flood are Bangco, Azusano, Dalangin, portion of Namnama, Poblacion, Achasol and Tugop.   While Almost all parts of Dalangin are prone to flood.

The SW4 is prone to flood considering that the area is just like basin during heavy rain that catches all the excess water from surrounding uplands and water from 2 rivers that coming from the municipality of Kalawit that met somewhere in Barangay Namnama. These water from 2 rivers usually overflow and occupied some parts of plains and drainage is so limited and can’t accommodate all the water right away, instead, some barangays were flooded for several days enough to make damages on rice fields drained. The SW5 showed that it is prone on moderate to high susceptibility of landslide followed by SW1.

–  On how denuded is the catchments area or forestland is also the ratio of its susceptibility to landslides and flood. It is found out also that there are 20 to 100 settlements or households presently residing at Tugop Muslim that is prone to Landslide.

–  There are 100 to 300 settlements or households found at Barangay Azusano that is high susceptible to flood.

  1. Presence of Hazard areas in terms of Epee Center & Faults

Titay has Epee Center and that is somewhere between in Barangay San Isidro and San Antonio.  It was recorded that this Epee center has experienced a ground shaking on March 1, 1964 at 12.54 PM/AM with a  7.3 magnitude.

                Severe ground shaking usually starts from Epee Center. When the Epee center shakes, simultaneously the impact will be distributed gradually to the fault lines. Nearby barangays who have distinct faultlines will shake too that affected or the the whole municipality or even wider which depends upon the magnitude.

When global warming continues to intensify due to deforestation, there has a tendency that this Epee Center will be affected and will have again a ground shaking or earthquakes.

The above figures would help local government to evaluate what are the necessary moves when it comes to structures and infra projects for the development of the municipality and for the safety of the constituents.

The municipality of Titay has distinctive and visible fault lines. Barangay Kipit has 3 fault lines while Tugop Muslim has one faultline. Two fault lines parallel with each other having an average distance between them of 1,573.39 meters traversing Titay. One of the fault lines traversing Titay passes in Palomoc, Namnama, Poblacion, Dalangin Muslim, Dalangin, Acasol and down to San Antonio. While the  other fault line that  traversing across  are Culasian, Malagandis, Dalangin, Poblacion Muslim,  Mabini and again in San Antonio.


Titay Local Shelter Plan Chapter 2 Continuation

Chapter 1 Introduction



2.1 Geographic Location and Features

  • Location Map of Titay

Map 1- Location Map of Titay

The Municipality of Titay is located in the second district of Zamboanga Sibugay among the town of the western municipalities. It is the last municipality going to Zamboanga Del Norte. It is located about 147 kilometers away from Pagadian City and about 154 Kilometers to Zambaonga City and about 178 km. to Dipolog City.   Titay is bounded on the North by the municipalities of Gutalac and Kalawit, Zamboanga del Norte; on South of R. T. Lim and Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay; on the East by Naga, Zamboanga Sibugay and on the west by Baliguian and Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte.   The town Poblacion is specifically located at  7°48’30″N to 7°54’0″ latitude and 122°24’30″E to 122°35’30″E longitude.

Municipality of Titay can be reached by passengers from adjacent municipalities by the use of land transportation.

Titay has 30 barangays.   These barangays are   Achasol, Azusano, Bangco, Camanga, Culasian, Dalisay Dalangin, Dalangin Muslim, Gomotoc, Imelda, Kipit, Kitabog, La Libertad, Longilog, Malagandis, Mabini, Mate,  Moalboal, Namnama, New Canaan, San Antonio, Supit, San Isidro, Palomoc, Poblacion, Poblacion Muslim, Pulidan and Tugop, Tugop Muslim, and Santa Fe.

2.1.2  Land Area

Titay has land classification of forest lands which has an area of 15,602 hectares and alienable and disposable with an area of 20,635 hectares which make a total area of the municipality of 36,237 hectares.

2.1.3  Climate

The climate of the municipality is belonging to Type IV with no distinct dry or wet season, which is favorable to the cultivation of crops. Moderate rain is experienced in the month of April and gradually gaining momentum in May and June. Heavy rains start from the month of July to August and gradually decline from September to January. Average monthly rainfall is pegged at 165.13mm, and tenths. Dry months start January to April with intermittent rain during new moons of each month.

Temperature in the municipality is fairly warm throughout the year. The relative humidity is comparatively high and uniform. Temperature is high during the months of April to May and low during the rainy months of August and September.

Titay is outside the typhoon belt area, occurrence of typhoon is not experienced in the locality, instead minor occurrence of weather depression with strong winds and rains are felt. Prevailing wind during the summer months called “Amihan”, blows towards the north during the rainy months.

2.1.4  Topography and Soils

Almost one-third of the total land of area of the town is characterized as mountainous and mountain ranges. The remaining areas are composed of undulating rolling hills and steep slopes forming a valley of approximately 18,000 hectares.