Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY – Scope and Delimitation


Chapter IChapter IIChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

Introduction; Statement of the Problem; Null HypothesisSignificance of the StudyConceptual FrameworkIndependent and Dependent VariablesScope and Delimitation

Chapter I/Scope and Delimitation

The study is delimited to students who have been pregnant at their teens (12-19) years old and living in, Maramag, Bukidnon.The subjects were drawn to the students who have been pregnant and or have been a student on their teenager days and living in Maramag, Bukidnon. The study focused on the extent of major causes of teenage pregnancy which are family, peers, community, and church involvement, with the educational development of students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon. The perception of the teenager to the effects of major causes of teenage pregnancy were limited to educational development only. This was the dependent variables of the study. The dependent variables of the respondents indicate the effects of educational development among students in school and out-of-school youth. These are teenagers who got pregnant and pursued their studies in spite of the hassle of having in the school and having a child to rear. There are also teenagers who got pregnant tried to go to school and earned a vocation plus degree. While others did not. There are also teenagers especially out-of-school youth who never have the chance to go to school after pregnancy.

Chapter I/Definition of Keywords

The following terms are defined for smooth progress of understanding and clarity of the major concepts used in the study. Cause of teenage pregnancy- is the producer of an effect, result or consequence.

Economic Status– means family income, parental educational level, parental occupation, and social status community.

Educational Development– is the possible trend, progress on their school performance of students or out-of-school youth/teenagers who have been pregnant.

Effect of teenage pregnancy– means a result brought about by premarital sex at the age of 13 to 19 years old in relation to her educational development. Out-of-school youth  – are youth aged 13 – 19 who are not in school and who are unemployed, underemployed, or lacking basic skills.

Peers of teenagers – means were teenagers having an age of 13 to 19 who is equal to another in abilities, qualification, age, background, and social status.  

Sex Education – means learning the external conditions such as psychological, sociological, economic and social factors that affect the personality, behavior and development of a boy to manhood and fatherhood and a girl to motherhood as well as with human reproduction.

Teenage Pregnancy -means conception by a girl between the ages of twelve  (12) and nineteen (19) year old which was not planned for.

Chapter I – Statement of the Problem

Chapter I – Null Hypothesis

Chapter I – Significance of the Study

Chapter I – Conceptual Framework;

Chapter – Independent and Dependent Variables

Chapter – Scope and Delimitation

Chapter – Definition of Terms

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Making;

Steps on making the “Background


Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY: Statement of the Problem


Click to guide you by chapter of this thesis –Chapter IChapter IIChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

Introduction; Statement of the Problem;Conceptual FrameworkIndependent and Dependent VariablesScope and Delimitation; Null HypothesisSignificance of the Study

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Statement of the Problem

This study is aimed to look into the effects of teenage pregnancy to the educational development of students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.  Particularly it aims to answer the following problems.

1. What is the demographic profile in terms of age, age when pregnant, educational attainment, status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

2. What are the causes of teenage pregnancy among the students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

3. Is there a significant difference on the educational development of teenage pregnancy when grouped according to age, educational attainment , status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

4. Which among the causes of teenage pregnancy effects most to students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

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Null Hypotheses

The following null- hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

1. There is no significant difference on the educational development of teenage pregnancy when grouped according to age, educational attainment, status, type of school attended, and economic background.

2. The causes of teenage pregnancy has no significant effect on the educational development of students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

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Significance of the Study

The study will conducted to find out the extent of how extreme is the effect of the major causes of teenage pregnancy to the educational development of students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon. The result of this study is beneficial to students and out-of-school youth, to the parents, teachers, to the community, school administrators, researchers and other interested individuals because this can serve as empirical data where suggestion of minimizing teenage pregnancy in the community can be taken.

The study will also benefit students who still are at school because it will  give them information about the cause and possible effects of teenage pregnancy  to their studies once they got pregnant. In one way or in another this paper will guide them to focus first their attention to their studies rather than giving priority to their romantic affairs with boyfriends.

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The study will also benefit the out-of-school youth to be aware of not getting pregnant at teens for the big chance at them to go back school or to be enrolled in ALS (Alternative Learning System), for the none high school graduate.

This study will also benefit  the parents to enable them to realize their great role in educating their teenagers, protecting and diverting them from indulging early sex especially if without marriage. They must be aware too of what kind of peers their teenagers have. This study too will make the parents aware that education about  the use of contraceptives will start also at home.

This study will also benefit the teachers for they could be informed how important is education to the development of children to manhood. This enables them to guide and identify the major causes of teenage pregnancy especially in Maramag, Bukidnon. Then and there they would intensify their functions to counter those causes by diversity The interest of teenage in engaging early sex and if ever teenagers are already fall of indulging sex both boys and girls, then contraceptives  will play on this to prevent teenage pregnancy.

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This study will also benefit school administrators. It would provide them information of the importance of knowing the major factors behind early pregnancy and the possible effects on educational development of teenagers. It’s one way that administrators will intensify sex education on their school, improve the knowledge of their faculties or teachers through seminars so that they can deal well with students to avoid pregnancy at early age. And truncate if it not half way to the learners to be effective and to be understood. The researcher hoped that the result of this study would also would also be a great help to future researchers and to all people who are interested to know more about teenage pregnancy on their causes and the possible effects on their educational development.

Chapter I – Statement of the Problem

Chapter I – Null Hypothesis

Chapter I – Significance of the Study

Chapter I – Conceptual Framework;

Chapter I – Independent and Dependent Variables

Chapter I- Scope and Delimitation

Chapter I- Definition of Terms

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Making;

Steps on making the “Background

Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY: Conceptual Framework


Click this to guide you by chapter of this thesis – Chapter IChapter IIChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

Introduction;  Statement of the ProblemNull HypothesisSignificance of the Study  

Conceptual Framework

Due to the increasing cases of teenage pregnancy in the Philippines and found out on this last decade that Philippines has the highest case all through the Asian region. Filipino communities, families and teenagers must be smart enough to counter the phenomenon. The schematic diagram in Fig 1 shows the variables reflected to the 1st box. These are independent variables which point out the major causes of teenage pregnancy and that are family, community, peers and church involvement. In the 2nd box is the consequence of teenage pregnancy and that is effect of educational development. This is the dependent variable.  An independent variables or combination of these can be the cause of teenage pregnancy considering that Filipino families usually offer sex education to their teenagers truncated halfway which usually misunderstood, or never touched about sex, instead leave their teenagers to learn out of their initiatives which usually mislead and might make them submit to early sex. Community has a big role on teenage pregnancy. Teenagers who are exposed to the society where sex is tolerated and lots of teenagers are pregnant might convinced them to do the same. Peers and friends of teenagers might be one cause, which happen to go with peers that having a positive attitude towards early and or premarital sex but no knowledge yet about dealing sex which result to teenage pregnancy. The dependent variables of the respondents indicate the effect of causes of teenage pregnancy to the educational development of students and out of school youth. These are teenagers who got pregnant but determine to pursue their studies in spite of the hassle brought about being in the school and having a child to rear and earn a degree after all while others can’t. These are also teenagers especially out of school youth who never have the chance to go back school after pregnancy.

Independent Variables           Dependent Variables


Peers and Friends                  Effects on Educational Development

Church Involvement


Figure I. A Schematic diagram of the independent and dependent variables on Teenage Pregnancy: Its effect on the Educational Development of Students and Out- Of – School Youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

Click below to some parts of chapter 1 of this thesis:

Chapter I –Statement of the Problem

Chapter I – Null Hypothesis

Chapter I – Significance of the Study

Chapter I – Conceptual Framework;

Chapter I – Independent and Dependent Variables

Chapter I- Scope and Delimitation

Chapter I- Definition of Keywords

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Making;

Steps on making the “Background

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2, Proposed Infrastructure and Projects

Proposed Infrastructure and projects of the municipality.

(If Jonard can provide map let him do) Proposed Road Conversion (see Fig.PP-) from provincial to national road.

Organizations, Institutions and Governance

Confronted with the daunting problems of the municipality, housing and relocation program, the present administration embarked an agenda that initially covers the under privileged families affected by the implementation of government infrastructure projects such as the following:

  1. Occupants of Bliss area
  2. Occupants of municipal roads
  3. Occupants of roads along national highway

The Local Government Unit (LGU) of Titay are also concern of the displaced units that are now existing in the municipality. Actually LGU is now taking steps to address the shelter needs of some of these displaced housing units found in BLISS and owned by the LGU. The municipality of Titay has used their available and present offices such as extracting personnel from Assessor Office, MPDCO, MSWDO and Engineering Office to make their tenure permanent such as facilitating titles in their names.

The present administration is already alarmed with the availability of displaced units found in the municipality specifically along the national highway from Barangay Moalboal going to Poblacion, next to Namnama and ended to Palomoc. There are already some spot removal of displaced units found along the national highway and some other private owned lots but the administration has not yet affected may be because there were not yet a massive number of households forced to exit by private owners from their respective lots.

As mentioned earlier that targeted area for their relocation is available of basic needs because of the presence of ZAMSURECO which is adept their services at all times in relation to power, ITWD for water and  sanitation by garbage disposal and  road access by the LGU.

  • So far, only “GAWAD KALINGA” was taking steps in facilitating housing units for the poor and offer socialized housing whereas the PAG-IBIG and some other lending bank institutions are offering an economic housing loans.

At present, there are already housing developers doing there service in Ipil and an adjacent town of Titay which when the LGU of Titay needs it, they easily be reached.

  • The urban poor sector and middle income groups who are the largest clientele of the plan are not yet organized but when they will be called for that purposes, the planners are confident that they will cooperate considering that shelter needs is a necessity.
  • Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC). HUDCC has been giving assistance to the Local Government Unit (LGU) particularly in the preparation of this plan, and also in updating the LGU regarding housing related policies, guidelines and programs for shelter plan.

2.2.6  Local Economic Outlook Income Class of LGU.  Titay is a 2nd class municipality. Annual Income (Local revenue & IRA)

Table below shows that Titay has 2 ways of collecting revenues and that are Local Sources which is comprises of Tax Revenue, non-tax revenue and other taxes which made a total of 10,155,199.29 and the other sources is External sources which is then comprised only of Internal Revenue Allotment having an amount of 76,240139.  These 2 sources of income of the municipality has a total of 86,395338.29 for the year 2010.

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2, Land Use

Map -10  Land Used Map

6. Land Use Map

Special Use – Special use are areas comprise 864.035 hectares or 2.65% of the total land area assessed in the municipality. The sanitary land fill is not yet included here but it is only religious and charitable institutions, government utilized areas and area for educational purposes ( See Table 12 –  Statistical Records 2010 )

Tourism Development – The municipality has undeveloped areas for tourism activities. These are tourism- related facilities such as various in land resorts located in the different parts of the municipality. There are private owned resort such as “ Green Resort” that is found in La Libertad and  “____” found in Mabini. There are also Moalboal Caves, Malagandis Falls known as “Curtain Like Falls” and the LGU is on its fast track to develop such falls and more as an example of a private places where people enjoy leisure activities. There is also an ongoing paper work for the construction of “Sky Cable” which is soon to be put up in “Gugawang Bugas”.

Quarrying – there are existing quarrying in Barangay Achasol, Palomoc, Namnama and Kipit but area cannot be determine yet. The potential and has the biggest area for quarrying is in  Kipit River but as of now, it is not yet fully used.

Water Uses :

Irrigation: There are more than 5,000 hectares of lowland rice production were being supplied of H20.

Potable Water: Ipil and Titay Water District (ITWD) has its source of potable water from the municipality.

Fish Pond: Inland water use refers to the existing fish ponds and bodies of water but they just utilized as personal consumptions.

2.2.4 Existing and Proposed Infrastructure

Infrastructure  and Utilities.   The map below shows public and private owned infrastructures. These include already the market sites, area where government establishments has been put up and the latest is a one hectare utilized as “Bagsakan” or Farm Products Landing Area especially rubber lumps where Titay has been known and catches the national attention of its efficiency.

This includes also other utilities such as area where power major lines passes, water system/reservoirs and Information communication technologies/cell sites.  There are also road network that traversing in the municipality.

Roads and Bridges – Titay has a national road traversing from Barangay Moalboal, La Libertad, Kitabog, Namnama to Palomoc. This is already a concrete road which presently having its road widening of 16 m. wide in Namnama and Palomoc and its almost done.

There are existing bridges along national highway and these situate at Barangay Moalboal and Barangay Poblacion Muslim. There are lots of bridges along Barangay roads with more than 15 bridges (Tulay Ng Pangulo) all were made up of steel and either spillway or bailey. Some  bridges along the primary and secondary roads are generally in good condition while those located in hinterland barangays need maintenance and rehabilitation.

Transportation – The town is a major public transport center. Several bus companies provide land transportation services with routes plying to and from Dipolog, Pagadian and Zamboanga City. Other services are facilitated by cargo trucks, vans, and several types of light vehicles for hire that serve the entire island of Mindanao.

Power – The town has a power transmission that traverse together with the National Highway. Power supply and distribution is critical for it deals with commercial and industrial services. Currently there are two power distribution utilities that serve the municipality of Titay, namely; Zamboanga del Sur Electric Cooperative (ZAMSURECO) and Solar Electrification Administered by DAR.

ZAMSURECO – is now serving 100% of the Barangays in the municipality but to those Household staying in the interior and not in the urbanized area of their barangay have option to use solar electrification.

Water- Water supply in the municipality has 2 options. Ipil and Titay water is extracting water from ground water reservoir and this is distributed individually to the residents. Production of wells are also an option in the municipality due to low water table.

Communications- Sophisticated services give the municipality modern facilities for communications. The existing communication facilities in Titay are postal service,  cellular mobile providers and internet providers.

School Building- Elementary buildings are all available to all barangays while High School Buildings are only available to some barangays and it is around 7 barangays.

Irrigation- Irrigation have main sources and that are found in Palomoc and Dalisay, all of the sources of water are from big rivers found in their respective areas. These irrigations are supplying the lowland portion of Palomoc, Namnama,Poblacion and Azusano. While the irrigation from Barangay Dalisay will be soon serving barangays  down their upland areas that owners will be surely convinced to divert it to lowland rice production due to the exceptional supply of water suitable for irrigating their area.

Map – 10 Infrastructure Map


Waste Management – Titay has a 2 hectares land fill located in Barangay Imelda at around 7 kilometers away from downtown with an average travel of 16 minutes from the Poblacion. It has a capacity of approximately 223,529.41 at 30 cubic meters/day.

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2, Land Use and Classification

Map – 9 Land Classification


​Land classification includes the uses on agricultural, industrial, commercial, residential, recreation areas, critical/ conservation areas, undeveloped areas/ danger areas, others.

Table 13 – Assessment Statistical Records on Categories of Land Use 2010

Taken from the file of Muncipal Assessor Office 2010



  1. Land Use

 Residential Use.  Residential areas assessed as of 2010 is .20% or 70.6801 hectares of the towns’ total land area assessed of 36,237 hectares. High-density residential area is concentrated in Barangay Poblacion especially on urban centers where real estate values are relatively high and the land utilization is maximized. Surrounding of Poblacion are low density residentials that still have a considerable area for development such as Barangay Kitabog, Palomoc and some other Barangays that until now are still classified as Agricultural use. Residential buildings have been constructed in the past ten years and rapidly increasing in Barangay Poblacion and along national highway due to the creation of Zamboanga Sibugay Province in where populace tend to flock in urban areas because of the opportunity of jobs and livelihood which ends to construct residential buildings in a place like along national highway.

The development of residential areas have spilled over to the adjacent barangays such as  Barangay Kitabog, Palomoc and Namnama. The barangay with the biggest residential area is Poblacion.  However, settlements in the outlying barangays of the municipality remains marginal of 0.20 % of the total land area of the municipality

Issues arise that road widening will soon be fully implemented and displaced units constructed along national highway will be advised for complete removal or mass ejection. Residential buildings presence along national highway showing now congestions, tampers the flow of transportation and sometimes caused accidents due to the presence of their pets such as astray animals, dogs, chickens, geese and some others.

Various residential areas particularly those situated at 200 sq.m. radius from the  trading center has experienced overflow of water but the LGU tried to open all the barangay roads to locate the origin of floods and established proper drainage even before the end of the year 2014.


Commercial Use. The area that has been assessed for commercial use is  .0083% or 3.0059 hectares of the total land area assessed in the municipality as of CY 2010. The Barangay Poblacion is the center of commerce with commercial structures built along major roads and highways indicating a “ribbon type” developmental pattern. The commercial establishments vary from generally small to medium buildings. In the past ten years, the expansion of commercial activities was pronounced in Barangay Kitabog, Namnama and Palomoc due to the creation of Zambaonga Sibugay Province. The making of the municipality of Ipil as the capital town of Sibugay extending its development to adjacent towns and that includes already the municipality of Titay. So much more, when Capitol was created in Ipil where most of the job seekers from Titay has landed in Capitol which brought more chances for business.

Many of the residents in Barangay Poblacion are increasingly improved into mixed use which residential building also provide commercial space to take advantage of their prime location.

Commercial development has been concentrated in Barangay Poblacion and along national highway of Barangay Moalboal, Kitabog, Namnama and Palomoc.  However, without proper mitigating measures, these have created pockets of traffic congestion in Barangay Poblacion and Kitabog but the making of Peace and Order in the municipality is so adept to minimize this problem just like improving the junctions area and at the same time assigning personnel on busy roads especially during morning, when the children are going back and forth at school and home at noon and in the afternoon.

Industrial Use. The area that has been assessed for commercial use is 14.9660 hectares or .0413% of the total land area assessed in the municipality as of CY 2010. Industrial utilization in some parts of Moalboal, Kitabog Palomoc and Namnama have encroached portions of agricultural areas. This is because of favorable infrastructures in the area such as good roads, presence of utilities like three phase electric power which is one of the basic requirements for industries.

Institutional Use.  Institutional areas comprise 864.6035 hectares or 2.6458 percent of the municipality’s  total land area. The existing institutions include government structures, churches/mosques, hospitals and schools. Municipal government offices are found mostly in the Poblacion and in the major urban centers of the municipality. Most of the major educational institutions, religious buildings, and some government reservations are found in these areas as well. There are existing Areas used by different institutions but there has no available data to determine how many is the exact hectares  were been utilized for that purpose but as it was stated earlier that the planners has considered the volume of assessed real properties from  Municipal Assessor Office from their  file to give the readers an  overview about the land uses of the municipality. So far the municipal assessor office has made an assessments of already 779.8380 hectares or 2.3858% owned by the local government unit. While the religious and charitable institutions has able to have  a 4.4795 hectares or .0137% of  the total land area and these are use as churches  and some uses for school purposes.  The Educational Institutions has  79 hectares or .2419% was been assessed  to the total land area of the municipality.

Agriculture Use.  The pace of the utilization of agricultural  lands has been surpassed by the rapid population growth and urbanization  necessitating the rezoning of many agricultural areas for other uses, most of it for residential and industrial purposes. Pockets of housing projects were established within the agricultural zone.  This situation could create possible conflicts in the future.

Municipality of Titay has an assessed agricultural land area of 21,326.8088 hectares or 58.8537% of the total area of the municipality. The agricultural productions that farmers were  engaged are lowland rice production which made Titay as the ‘rice bowl” of Sibugay Province. Next to lowland rice production is Rubber latex that made Titay known of their “Bagsakan” of Rubber lumps. The potential area for agricultural use   could actually be greater than the present figure because of the cultivation of  shrublands  into fruit trees or rubber trees having an area of 807.81 hectares that are found in Camanga and Azusano, and cultivation of grasslands that are found at Barangay Gomotoc, Mate, Longilog, Dalisay, Palomoc and Culasian having an area of 1,891.923 hectares. Take a look again on (See Map – 11  Land Used Map).

The undeclared area reflected on the table which accounted to 14,035.7017 hectares or 38.73% of the total land area of the municipality  are generally utilize as agricultural use of the stakeholders.

 Forest.  Forest areas are those covered with woody type of vegetation whether natural or planted forest (See Map – 10  Land Use map ). These are closed forest broad leaved with an area  37.002 hectares, open forest broad leaved with an area of 1,152.798 hectares, other land cultivated annual of 6,812.260 hectares and other cultivated perennial  of 25,452.465 hectares with a total forest of 33,454.53 hectares and these includes the boundaries with conflicting issues.

Forest Land has been used by stakeholders based to the specifications that the DENR has thrust.  The in-site stakeholders are ISF project, they have 551.77  hectares and situated Barangay Mate, Longilog and Mabini, the map above explained the said stakeholders are engaged on planting trees, rubber, coconut, gemilina and few are planting annual crops.

The CBFM has 2,010.26 hectares and situated somewhere in Barangay Pulidan, Dalisay and San Isidro .  Upon the assessments made by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Region IX, the area now has been  planted already by the stakeholders with perennial crops and portion of it in SW-1 has been now an open forest.   While the portion of CBFM situated at SW-5 in Barangay New Canaan is another way also, on 2003, it showed that it was utilized by the stakeholders by planting annual crops and there were perennials crops but on the latest assessment it turned out that this area are already grassland and shrub lands.

The CAD-C  has an area of 2,148.43 located in Barangay Tugop and Kipit, on the year 2003 this was been utilized by planting perennial crops, there has also an open forest and more grassland but after the assessment on 2010, almost all the area has been planted with perennial crops  and there are still small portion of grassland.

On 2003, IFMA having an area of 949.23 has an open forest, grassland  and perennial crops on it but on the latest assessment all the area has been planted already of perennials crops.

On the latest assessment on 2010 the MPSA area has a total of 2,017.03.  Portions of this area has still grassland, open, closed forest and perennial crops.  While some other stakeholders  has utilized some other forest land and they are Adopt A Mountain, NGP School Site Reserve for Palomoc, SLUP and Water Shed.

Off-site stakeholders are upland farmers who will be benefiting by means of reducing or preventing landslides and providing them enough source of water for everyday use. Water district members and irrigators association members who will provide them enough of water for domestic use, reduce floods, and provide enough water to irrigate their low land rice field.

The institutions and or agencies that are involved in forest management in Titay are DENR with CENRO, Ipil who were the implementor of reforestation projects and it was “REFO Projects” on 1986 which covers more or less 2,000 hectares.

In MLGU have MENRO/MAO and more which may have 10 members. It has able to have a nursery establishment for rubber plantation with a budget of Php 200,000.00 rubber plantation watershed.

BLGU of Titay is consisting of 30 barangays who are capable of plantation establishment but no reforestation budget. The LGU of Titay has a 697 Hectares Co-management agreement with DENR at Barangay Palomoc and Culasian for watershed.