Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – CHAPTER II – Foreign Studies


Click here to guide you by Chapters – Chapter IChapter 11Chapter IIIChapter IVChapter V


Review of Related Literature and Studies

            This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study. The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background; insight and to supplement the ideas in the present investigation.

Foreign Studies

Common Demographic Profile of Children

Gender and disruptive behavior

Parenting Preschoolers with Disruptive Behavior Disorders Does Child Gender Matter? 8-19-2013 Antonya M. Gonzalez, Washington University in St Louis. –  This study is related to the present study because it deals with parental responses to child behavior (to girl or boy) that can have an important impact on later behavioral outcomes. Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders often engage in externalizing and disruptive behaviors  which usually elicit negative responses from parents. Boys are more frequently diagnosed with these disorders, resulting in a dearth of literature on parental responses to girls with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Studies have found that parents react more negatively when girls engage in disruptive behavior, plausibly because it is contrary to societal gender expectations.

Parents Intervention

HYPERLINK”/Reports/ Order %20in%20the%20Classroom-Violence,%20Discipline.pdf” \t “_parent” 1995, has published that a certain study stressed that environmental factors  causes disruptive behaviors and can be managed with common-sense approaches including concentrating on the child’s positive behaviors and ignoring the  undesirable behaviors. There should also be clear, simple, consistent consequences for disruptive behavior. Parents can promote positive behaviors by noticing and praising children’s good behaviors as often as possible. A useful way of remembering this is the phrase “Catch them when they’re good”  consequently that appropriate expectations of children’s behavior and the basic principles of behavior change go a long way to understanding and managing disruptive behaviors and that when behaviors are given attention, they tend to be repeated.

Barton, P.E.2009, added that any attention given to a behavior (telling off and yelling count as attention) increases the chances that it will happen again.

Obviously, severe physical punishment may be some kind of deterrent, but carries many detrimental consequences in terms of unhappy relationships, emotional problems, poor self-esteem, and anger.

Review of Related Literature and Studies of Chapter 2, click below:

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Foreign Studies

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Gender & Parents Intervention

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Overt Inattentive

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Tardiness and Laziness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Misbehavior

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) – Aggressiveness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) –Economic Background & Justification

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Or Dissertation Making . Call or text to 09268212800

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Foreign Studies – Tardiness and Laziness


Click here to guide you by Chapters – CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

Persistent Tardiness and Laziness

Salmon, Peter C., 2000,“Aggressive behavior in Secondary school”, stressed that both biological and environmental are the causes for disruptive behavior disorders. (Biological includes; underweight during birth, brain damage from birth and etc.) (Environmental includes; stressed encounter at home, alcohol used by parents, poverty and etc.).   Children who have been exposed to environment as stressful as these are helpless.  They still need guidance and constant monitoring with regards to their education.   They need to be taught from home, how to wake up early, how to catch every angle of school requirements under pressure with the cooperation of parents to avoid tardiness and motivations/encouragement were there always behind to let laziness out of space to the life of these new generation.

J.B. Bucayong said that a certain study showed  that all parents had experienced parenting their own children. In addition, knowledge about what can be expected from children at different developmental stages and knowledge about the principles of behavior change contribute strongly to parenting styles.  Two parents may have similar ideas about parenting or may be diametrically opposed in their beliefs and practices. Parenting styles may decrease, maintain or inadvertently increase disruptive behavior in children.  Thus persistent tardiness and or laziness will be either minimize or intensifies depending on effective strategies used by the parents to some teenagers from being dependent of this kind of behavior.

Review of Related Literature and Studies of Chapter 2, click below:

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Foreign Studies

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Gender & Parents Intervention

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Overt Inattentive

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Tardiness and Laziness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Misbehavior

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) – Aggressiveness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) –Economic Background & Justification

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Population, Households

Chapter 2 / Hazard Map

Table – 3 Household Population by Urban and Rural Barangay and Average Household Size    Year  2010

Barangay Population


Number of Household Average Household Size
A.Urban Barangay    
1.Poblacion 6,764 2,300 2.94
Sub-total 6,764 2,300 .94
B. Urbanizing  
2.San Antonio 3,241 639 5.07
Sub-total 3,241 639 5.07
C. Rural Barangay  
1.Achasol 1,859 546 3.40
2.Azusano 944 225 4.20
3.Bangco 1,551 311 4.99
4.Camanga 1,041 255 4.08
5.Culasian 1,186 278 4.27
6.Dalangin 2,577 554 4.65
7.Dalangin Muslim 560 103 5.44
8.Dalisay 1,498 338 4.43
9.Gomotoc 881 174 5.06
10.Imelda 1,094 176 6.22
11.Kipit 1,678 291 5.77


3,664 620 5.91
13.La Libertad 591 147 4.02
14. Longilog 852 224 3.80
15.Mabini 1,197 233 5.14
16. Malagandis 1,315 267 4.93
17. Mate 925 203 4.56
18. Moalboal 547 111 4.93
19. Namnama 2,077 602 3.45
20. New  Canaan 660 193 3.42
21. Palomoc 2,750 546 5.04
22. Pob. Muslim 759 199 3.81
23. Pulidan 1,219 250 4.88
24. San Isidro 1,104 543 2.03
25. Santa Fe 1,474 356 4.14
26. Supit 919 154 5.97
27. Tugop 1,020 238 4.29
28. Tugop Muslim 509 128 3.98
Sub-total 36,451 8,265 4.41
Total 46,456 11,204 4.15


Source: 2010 Census of Population and Housing. For the no. of HH- 2009 NHTS ( 4Ps)


























Figure -2 2010 Most Populated Barangays


Figure 1. Tempo of Urbanization

TABLE 3:   Urbanization Levels for the past 20 years

 Year Barangay Population Tempo of Urbanization (%)
Urban Rural Total
1990 5,367 26,627 31,994 16.77
2000 6,746 36,958 43,704 15.44
2005 6,988 40,225 46,674 14.97
2007 9,839 33,884 43,723 22.50
2010 6,764 36,451 46,456 14.56
Barangays Area


HH Popula


Pop. Density

( has)

Area in Pop. Density


A. Urban Barangay
1.Poblacion 1,388 6,764 4.87 13.88 487
Sub-total 1,388 6,764 4.87 13.88 487
B. Urbanizing
1. San Antonio 1,998 3,241 1.62 19.98 162
Sub-total 1,998 3,241 1.62 19.98 162
C. Rural Barangay
1.Achasol 1,238 1,859 1.50 12.38 150
2.Azusano 495 944 1.91 4.95 191
3.Bangco 1,312 1,551 1.18 13.12 118
4.Camanga 1,842 1,041 .57 18.42 57
5.Culasian 3,579 1,186 .33 35.79 33
6.Dalangin 1,020 2,577 2.53 10.20 253
7.Dalangin Muslim 244 560 2.29 2.44 229
8.Dalisay 4,198 1,498 .36 41.98 36
9.Gomotoc 2,312 881 .38 23.12 38
10.Imelda 1,789 1,094 .61 17.89 61
11.Kipit 7,361 1,678 .23 73.61 23
12.Kitabog 1,089 3,664 3.36 10.89 336
13.La Libertad 1,458 591 .41 14.58 41
14.Longilog 3,035 852 .28 30.35 28
15.Mabini 1,659 1,197 .72 16.59 72
16.Mate 1,631 1,315 .82 16.31 82
17. Malagandis 1,028 925 .90 10.28 90
18. Moalboal 860 547 .64 8.60 64
19. Namnama 2,075 2,077 1.00 20.75 100
20. New Canaan 3,037 660 .22 30.37 22
21. Palomoc 2,035 2,750 1.35 20.35 135
22. Poblacion Muslim 720 759 1.05 7.20 105
23. Pulidan 4,423 1,219 .28 44.23 28
24. San Isidro 1,049 1,104 1.05 10.49 105
25. Santa Fe 4,343 1,474 .34 43.43 34
26. Supit 2,446 919 .38 24.46 38
27. Tugop 868 1,020 1.17 8.68 117
28. Tugop Muslim 468 509 1.08 4.68 108
Sub-total 57,614 36,451 .63 576.14 63
Total 61,000 46,456 .76 610.00 76

Population Density, Gross Density and Built-Up Density CY 2010

Source: NSO 2010, computed base on the data & formula using CLUP Guidebook Volume 2

The most densely populated Barangay is Poblacion with 487 persons per square kilometre to its geographical location with 1,388 sq. kms. Next is Kitabog with 336 persons per square kilometres. Followed by Barangay Dalangin and Dalangin Muslim with 253 and 229 persons per squares kilometre respectively. Barangay New Canaan remains the most sparely populated with only 22 persons per square kilometres due to unstable peace and order in the area. There should be an adequacy of evaluation in terms of social, economic and environmental potentials for development.

 Densely Barangays

Figure -4

Figure 5 Growth Rate ( 1975 – 2010)

TABLE 6:   Historical Growth of Population

Year Population Increase or Decrease

Growth Rate for the Locality

1970 19,008
1975 20,005 997 1.03
1980 24,983 4,978 4.54
1990 31,994 7,011 2.50
1995 36,206 4,212 3.32
2000 42,692 6,486 1.33
2007 43,723 1,031 .79
2010 46,456 2,733 1.53

Source: Approved CLUP (1994-2004) , NSO 2007, 2010


The population trend of Titay shows a continued increase from the year 1970 to 2010. From 1975 to 1980, it shows the highest growth rate due to unstable peace and order of the nearby municipalities. Table 5 and figure 4 shows the historical trend of population.














Table -6 Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CDR) for the Last Five Years

Period NO. CBR % Increase/Decrease from Previous Year NO. CDR % Increase/Decrease from Previous Year
2006 1,526 35.68 132 3.09
2007 1,372 31.38 (4.30) 244 5.58 2.49
2008 1,212 27.12 (4.26) 255 5.70 .12
2009 2,042 44.72 17.60 246 5.38 (.32)
2010 1,482 31.76 (12.96) 122 2.61 (2.77)

Source: LCR, MHO, LGU,Titay, Z.S.(average)

Figure 2. CBR & CDR for the last 5 years




Crude Birth Rate (CBR) of the municipality is placing an annual average rate of 34 births per 1,000 populations.  Year 2009 marks the highest CBR at 44.72 births per 1,000 populations. The fluctuating trend in the crude birth rate somehow implies the municipality’s conscious effort of the population management program and the various social safety nets. Looking at the crude death rate (CDR) or the total deaths from all ages indicate a constant growth over the last 4 years and it dropped down in 2010 by 2.77 deaths per 1,000 populations.

TABLE 7:   Literacy Rate of Population 5 years old and Over, by Sex  CY 2010

  Male Female Both Sexes
No. % No. % No. %
Population 7 years old over 21,402 46.07 19,756 42.53 41,158 60.89
Literacy Rate (%) 20,370 95.18% 18,804 95.18% 39,174 95.18%
Illiterate 1,032 2.41% 952 2.41% 1,984 4.82%
Total 21,402 100% 19,756 100% 41,158 100%

                Source: NEDA Region IX (, Pop. 2010 using formula, NSO 2010


Literacy refers to the ability of population who have at least completed a year in elementary education to the population seven years old and over. 1990 Census on Population and Housing showed that 89.83% literacy rate of Titay. Table 7 reveals that out of the population 7 years old and over reached the highest literacy rate with 95.18%. The literacy rate is quite high. This shows that the municipality completely establishes primary and elementary school in all barangays of Titay. In every 1.05 household populations literate there is .05 illiterate in 2010. More illiterate in male population than female as shown in table 7 with 7.75% male over female.


Year 2010




(in has.)



A.      Urban
1.Poblacion 6,764 13.79 1,388 4.69
B.      Urbanizing
2.San Antonio 3,241 8.40 1,998 1.99
C.      Rural
1.Achasol 1,859 3.97 1,238 1.51
2. Azusano 944 1.89 495 1.80
3. Bangco 1,551 3.30 1,312 1.19
4. Camanga 1,041 2.17 1,842 .55
5. Culasian 1,186 2.94 3,579 .39
6. Dalangin 2,577 5.87 1,020 2.71
7. Dalangin Muslim 560 1.089 244 2.10
8. Dalisay 1,498 3.21 4,198 .36
9. Gomotoc 881 1.85 2,312 .38
10. Imelda 1,094 2.26 1,789 .60
11. Kipit 1,678 3.10 7,361 .197
12. Kitabog 3,664 6.56 1,089 2.85
13. La Libertad 591 1.56 1,458 .51
14. Longilog 852 1.92 3,035 .30
15. Mabini 1,197 2.47 1,659 .70
16. Malagandis 1,315 2.83 1,028 1.30
17. Mate 925 1.95 1,631 .56
18. Moalboal 547 1.18 860 .64
19. Namnama 2,077 4.36 2,075 .99
20. New Canaan 660 1.80 3,037 .28
21. Palomoc 2,750 4.97 2,035 1.15
22. Poblacion Muslim 759 1.46 720 .96
23. Pulidan 1,219 2.67 4,423 .29
24. San Isidro 1,104 3.93 1,049 1.77
25. Santa Fe 1,474 3.10 4,343 .34
26. Supit 919 1.76 2,446 .34
27.  Tugop 1,020 2.55 868 1.37
28. Tugop Muslim 509 1.13 468 1.14
Total 46,456 100 61,000 .76

Source: NSO

Titay Local Shelter Plan Chapter 2 Continuation

Chapter 1 Introduction



2.1 Geographic Location and Features

  • Location Map of Titay

Map 1- Location Map of Titay

The Municipality of Titay is located in the second district of Zamboanga Sibugay among the town of the western municipalities. It is the last municipality going to Zamboanga Del Norte. It is located about 147 kilometers away from Pagadian City and about 154 Kilometers to Zambaonga City and about 178 km. to Dipolog City.   Titay is bounded on the North by the municipalities of Gutalac and Kalawit, Zamboanga del Norte; on South of R. T. Lim and Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay; on the East by Naga, Zamboanga Sibugay and on the west by Baliguian and Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte.   The town Poblacion is specifically located at  7°48’30″N to 7°54’0″ latitude and 122°24’30″E to 122°35’30″E longitude.

Municipality of Titay can be reached by passengers from adjacent municipalities by the use of land transportation.

Titay has 30 barangays.   These barangays are   Achasol, Azusano, Bangco, Camanga, Culasian, Dalisay Dalangin, Dalangin Muslim, Gomotoc, Imelda, Kipit, Kitabog, La Libertad, Longilog, Malagandis, Mabini, Mate,  Moalboal, Namnama, New Canaan, San Antonio, Supit, San Isidro, Palomoc, Poblacion, Poblacion Muslim, Pulidan and Tugop, Tugop Muslim, and Santa Fe.

2.1.2  Land Area

Titay has land classification of forest lands which has an area of 15,602 hectares and alienable and disposable with an area of 20,635 hectares which make a total area of the municipality of 36,237 hectares.

2.1.3  Climate

The climate of the municipality is belonging to Type IV with no distinct dry or wet season, which is favorable to the cultivation of crops. Moderate rain is experienced in the month of April and gradually gaining momentum in May and June. Heavy rains start from the month of July to August and gradually decline from September to January. Average monthly rainfall is pegged at 165.13mm, and tenths. Dry months start January to April with intermittent rain during new moons of each month.

Temperature in the municipality is fairly warm throughout the year. The relative humidity is comparatively high and uniform. Temperature is high during the months of April to May and low during the rainy months of August and September.

Titay is outside the typhoon belt area, occurrence of typhoon is not experienced in the locality, instead minor occurrence of weather depression with strong winds and rains are felt. Prevailing wind during the summer months called “Amihan”, blows towards the north during the rainy months.

2.1.4  Topography and Soils

Almost one-third of the total land of area of the town is characterized as mountainous and mountain ranges. The remaining areas are composed of undulating rolling hills and steep slopes forming a valley of approximately 18,000 hectares.

Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY – Chapter 3

Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V


Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research design, research locale, the respondents, sampling procedure, data gathering tools, the scoring procedure and the treatment data in the foregoing study.

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Research Design

Basically, this study employed a descriptive- qualitative research design. Certain questions were designed  to draw out responses on specific information regarding the future plans of the respondents despite the conditions that they are in.

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Research Locale

This study was be conducted at Maramag, Bukidnon. This municipality was be purposively chosen because of its accessibility to the researcher in gathering data for the reason that this municipality is developing and the researcher is concerned of the teenagers who get pregnant in the locality and are often the  topics of  the bystanders and acquaintances of the respondent who are affected with the sudden twist of their life situation.

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Respondents of the study

The respondents of this study were  be selected teenage students and out of school youth who got pregnant from the year 2009-2013 in Maramag, Bukidnon. They were chosen to provide vital information about the effects of teenage pregnancy to their educational development.  These respondents wereselected to generate information of the effects of teenage pregnancy and to

thefamily, community, peers and the church denomination where they are affiliated.

The respondents of the study are those whose ages range from  12 to 19 years old who got pregnant while still in school. Data about the respondents can be obtained from health centers, hospital, inquiries from friends and neighbors, co teachers and Municipal Social Welfare Development or (MSWD) office.

The local government has programs for the moral and economic development of the youth but still lacks implementation thus creating problems among teenagers.

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Sampling  Procedure

The method that was used in choosing the respondents was purposive sampling picking all the cases that meet the criterion.   The researcher will chose  purposive sampling, considering that the population of respondents is small and there are lots to consider on securing the respondents’ participation.   Furthermore, the victims might be ashamed to disclose their  experiences, some don’t want to refresh their  sad past chapter of their  lives, others have transferred to other place and there are still others that were  not be reached for comments.

All teenage students and out of school youth who got pregnant from the year 2009-2013 were involved and prioritized. The researcher  hoped to gather not less than 60  respondents all throughout the Municipality of Maramag, Bukidnon.

The Research Instrument

The researcher employed a self- made questionnaire to gather data of the present study Part I is the demographic profile of the respondents. This was included  their name, age, age when pregnant, name of school attended, educational attainment and the economic background of the respondents. The second part of the questionnaire deals with the causes of teenage pregnancy. Part III includes questions on educational development after pregnancy. And Part  IV is the questions on the future plans of the respondents.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher sought permission from the health centers in Maramag, Bukidnon to be given pertinent data of teenage  pregnancy cases for year 2009 to 2013. Further the office of the Municipal Social Welfare Development (MSWD) was requested to give information regarding cases of teenage pregnancy in the municipality.

Inquiries from barangay officials, friends, co-teachers, neighbors and relatives were also be considered in the possible search for respondents.

Once the researcher has identified a qualified respondent, she will personally approached  the target respondent and explain to her the study that the researcher is presently doing. The researcher also explained to her that her cooperation mean a lot for the success of the said study.

A researcher- made questionnaire was administered personally by the researcher.

Statistical Treatment

In the analysis of the data of the study, the researcher employed the following statistical tools.

Frequency and Percentage. This was  used to determine the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age when pregnant, status, type of school attended and their economic background.

Average Weighted Mean. This was used to find out the extent  of Teenage pregnancy among the students and out of school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

The t-test was likewise  used to test the significant difference of the extent on the educational development of teenage pregnancy when grouped according to age, educational attainment, status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

Step- Wise Regression Analysis. Was employed to analyze which among the major causes of teenage  pregnancy greatly affect the respondents educational development.


Click here to direct you by chapters – CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

CHAPTER III – Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research design, the description of the subjects/respondents, the sampling procedure that was used, the data gathering procedure, the administration of the instrument and the treatment of data.

Research Design

The researcher chose the descriptive research design, using survey as the main tool in gathering the data. These were qualitative data where its mean purpose was to determine the extent of factors associated with disruptive behavior of grade IV and V pupils. Data collection were taken from the respondents chosen by the use of random sampling. The conditions or relationships that existed, opinions that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are evident, or trends that are developing were described using the instrument. It primarily draws attention to the present although it often considers past events and influences as they relate it to current conditions.

Research Locale

            This study was conducted at the Municipality of Cabanglasan Bukidnon District of Cabanglasan school year 2013-2014. This was chosen because of  the convenience of the researcher in gathering data for the reason that the researcher is presently employed in the same municipality .

The Municipalty of Cabanglasan is geographically located at the eastern part of Bukidnon with a total land area of 26,230 kilometer ,composes of 15 barangays. It has 35 kilometers away from Malaybalay City Bukidnon. The Local Government Unit of Cabanglasan Bukidnon also helped in implementing some

projects through donations as partnership in the smooth delivery of  educational services to the community. The Parent Teacher Association (PTA) is working with the school as partners in achieving its vision and mission. Some of the school projects were funded by the PTA as one of the stronghold  of the institution in achieving its goals of quality basic education. Thus The Cabanglasan District has 26 schools with a total number of 194 teachers as indicated in form 3. 43 of which are the grade IV and V Teacher respondents having pupils with disruptive behavior. Attached in the next page is the table  showing the distribution of teachers by school.

Respondents of the Study

            The respondents of this study were the grade four and five teachers of Cabanglasan District, during the school year 2013-2014 .They were chosen to provide important information about the Factors Associated with Disruptive Behavior of grade four and five pupils in Cabanglasan District. These respondents were validated and generated with their classroom data on pupils gender, age, educational attainment of parents, and number of children in the family. The population of the respondents is small, so the researcher used the entire population and  targeted of not less than 2 teachers in every school found in Cabanglasan District  to cooperate with her study.

Number of Respondents by School of Cabanglasan District
Name of School No. of Teachers in Grade IV No. of Teachers in Grade V Total
 ANLUGAN E/S 1 1 2
.  CANANGA-AN E/S  1 1 2
.  COPINONAN E/S  1 1 2
 FREEDOM E/S  1 1 2
 IMBATUG E/S  1 1 2
 JASAAN E/S  1 1 2
 LAMBAGAN E/S  1 1 2
 MANDAING E/S  1 1 2
 OMALAO E/S  1 1
 PARADISE E/S  1 1 2
 TAGBACAN E/S  1 1 2
 TAGIPTIP E/S  1 1 2
 VALSONS E/S  1 1 2
Grand Total  22 21  43
  Scoring Procedure Used in the Study
Scale Limits Qualitative Description Qualifying Statement Interpretation
5 4.21 – 5.00 Always Occurred in all Situation Highly Disruptive Behavior
4 3.41 – 4.20 Often Occurred in many Situations Disruptive Behavior
3 2.61 – 3.40 Occasionally Occurred in few situations Moderately Disruptive Behavior
2 1.81 – 2.60 Seldom Occurred once in a while Less Disruptive Behavior
1 1.00 – 1.80 Never Not occurred at all Never occurred

To continue, click parts of the Chapter 3 of this thesis/ dissertation below :

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) – Research Methodology;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) – Research Design;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) – Research Locale;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) – Respondents of the Study;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) – Scoring Procedure of the Study

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) –  Sampling Procedure;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) – The Research Instrument;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) –Data Gathering Procedure;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) – Scoring Procedure;

Chapter 3 (Disruptive Behavior) –Statistical Treatment

Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY – Chapter 2 – Family

Click here to guide you by chapters – Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V


teenage preg 3.jpg

Click more parts of Chapter 2⇒ FamilyCommunityChurch Involvement;  Peers;  Media;  Effects of Pregnancy and Justification

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 Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study.  The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background, insight and to supplement the ideas  in the present investigation.

The tremendous speed of technological innovations requires, that the teenagers keep pace to the present-day changes.   Such as teenagers in the Philippine must be protected against the increasing trend of teenage pregnancy as it happened on this  latest decade.   And another decades of the same trend is already detrimental to the educational development of students and out of school youth in the country.  There are factors that trigger teenagers prone to be pregnant and that are Family,   Community   Church Involvement;  Peers and Media;


In the Philippines,  the NSO 2013, data showed that 13-14 percent  of all registered marriages are among teenagers below 20 years old while data from the National Youth Commission  show that the rate of teen pregnancy in the country is among the highest in the ASEAN region and the only country where the rate is increasing. The global issue of teen pregnancy is  the reason why the annual celebration of  World Population Day —  July 11 — lead by UNFPA, focuses on addressing teen pregnancy.  Benjamin de Leon, president of the Forum for Family Planning and Development in the Philippines, an NGO working on adolescent health issues, expressed alarm that almost 10 percent of all Filipino women aged 15-19 have already given birth. “This is a reality that we must address, he said.There is an urgency for all sectors “to work together to help address adolescent reproductive health issues and teen pregnancy because of the health and economic implications to the country,” he said. “A high rate of teen pregnancy also means a high risk for maternal deaths among our young girls.”

The Philippines joins the rest of the world in calling the attention of Government and civil society groups to help address  rising teen pregnancies through better policies, improved education and information campaigns and programs that can reach our adolescents  in schools, in communities or wherever they may be,” de Leon said. In here he points out that every Filipino family,community, church involvement and peers of a teenager has a great role on this.

Domini Torivillas  (The Philippine Star) updated July 11, 2013.   There is evidence supporting the Reproductive Health Law that calls for sexuality education  among young students. Not that for teachingthe kids to engage in “safe” sex, but rather, for telling them why they should not engage in early sex, and yes, before marriage. With regulated sexuality education, the young are informed about sex, pregnancy, unplanned and planned, instead of through the internet or pornographic magazines that somehow manage to reach them. Peep into their rooms  and see copies of Playboy and  Pent house and other sexy publications tucked between the bed sheets, and  for-adults-only videos in the internet.   When the family disregard sex education at home, might one way that teenagers will be innocent about sex consequences and prone to early sex. The other one is when the family has poor values and can’t understand the need of teenagers economically, socially and emotionally might one reason too of teenage pregnancy.

.           Discover Questions in the Philippines”, July 14, 2013 (Online Survey). The factors that  triggers the increased of Teenage Pregnancy in the country are: Family problems, broken family/complicated family, peer pressure/bad influence, Media/Television/Movies-Influential Trends (regarding sex), Pornography, lack of attention, love, caring,  lack of moral values,  failure to nurture with good principle, Curiosity, Lack of Information about Sex (sex education), use of Illegal drugs, lack of Guidance, Prostitution (involves poverty), unintelligent decisions etc.

The main thrust of this study is to find out the factors behind the teenage pregnancy.   It is clear that some other factors on teenage pregnancy such as  peer pressure, media / movies or television, use of illegal drugs and Lack of Information about Sex (sex education) and some other factors are rooted or sprouted from 2 factors only and that are due to absence of  “Family Intervention”  and Educational Information about sex (sex education).

In here it was disclosed by ”Press release courtesy of DKT Reproductive Health Inc.”, 2012: that the National Statistics Office revealed that from 2000-2010, teenage pregnancy in the Philippines has increased by 65%, despite an almost 14% decline in teenage marriage in the same period. The increase was most  notable among girls aged 15 to 19, among whom live births rose 38% from the Family Health Survey disclosed that the primary reasons for teenage pregnancy are insufficient access to information about sexual health and reproductive health services specifically targeted at teens.

Actually the first access on Education of sex will start at home but in spite of campaign of Philippine government. Filipino families remain hesitant to open up sex to their children. Instead the government has find hard to implement sex education because of Filipino beliefs and values. (Billy & Brewster,2002),The family members of an adolescent exert considerable influence over his or her sexual behavior. Many aspects of family life influence a teen’s decision to become sexually active, use contraception, or continue with a pregnancy. Socio-economic status, family structure, parental attitudes, and parental communication and support all play an important role in a teen’s decision-making.Children of parents with low educational attainment, occupation and income are more likely to have sex at an early age, not use contraception consistently and become pregnant or cause a pregnancy.The values and behavior demonstrated by family members regarding sexual risk taking and early childbearing influence the teen’s own attitudes and behavior.

Parents with permissive attitudes about teen sex or premarital sex, or negative attitudes about contraception have children who are more likely to have unprotected sex and become pregnant .(Kim, Ridger, Harper, & Yang, 1974) Teens look to their parents as role models and very often reproduce their behavior. Therefore, it is not surprising that teens are more likely to initiate sex and become pregnant if their parents are having sex outside of marriage, cohabiting with a romantic or sexual partner, have had a child outside of marriage or gave birth as an adolescent.

Click to continue ⇒ Community

Chapter 2-Family

Chapter 2-Community;

Chapter 2-Church Involvement;

Chapter 2-Peers;

Chapter 2-Media;

Chapter 2-Effects of Pregnancy and Justification

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