Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Local Studies – Economic Background & Justification

THE EFFECTS OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR TO THE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF GRADE IV & V PUPILS IN CABANGLASAN DISTRICT

Click here to guide you by Chapters – CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

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Economic Background and Disruptive Behavior

Philippines Millennium Development Goals Progress Report  (2010) – This 2010 Philippines Millennium Development Goals Progress, is related to the present study for it pointed out on the education of children coupled with gender equality and lessen poverty.    Poverty effected too much the development of children with regards to their psychosocial and mental health.   When children are affected with hunger at home and or during school days, it affects to their behavior, it could make them irritable and might lead them to have a disruptive behavior at school.   During school hours, children are surely uncomfortable, listening all the stuff of lessons filed in a day with an empty stomach and can’t absorbed right away their subject matters specially when the nutrients requires to be maintained in their body were deficit.

Bucayong, E. 1997, said that his study showed that parents sometimes fall into the trap of trying to resolve problem behaviors by arguing with the child about them. Unfortunately, trying to reason with a small child about their behavior can result in parent and child becoming worked up, and may result in anger and resentment.

Justification

The literature of legal bases helped the researcher understand that the present study is a long thrust of the Philippine government. Ten years ago, the government thrust about children rights and protection were relied more through parents look out.   But today, government intensifies their  thrust for the children’s welfare and treatments with the cooperation of parents, teachers and an agency assigned by the government.

The related literature both foreign and local had also given the researcher ideas and insights useful in carrying out her research process concerning the factors associated with disruptive behavior.    Furthermore, these foreign and local studies provided the researcher an opportunity to compare her work with the existing work related to her study in order to strengthen or back-up her recent findings and make solid framework of her new discovery related to “disruptive behavior”.

Review of Related Literature and Studies in Chapter 2, click below:

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Foreign Studies

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Gender & Parents Intervention

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Overt Inattentive

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Tardiness and Laziness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Misbehavior

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) – Aggressiveness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) –Economic Background & Justification

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Or Dissertation Making . Call or text to 09268212800

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – CHAPTER II – Foreign Studies

THE EFFECTS OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR TO THE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF GRADE IV & V PUPILS IN CABANGLASAN DISTRICT

Click here to guide you by Chapters – Chapter IChapter 11Chapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

            This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study. The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background; insight and to supplement the ideas in the present investigation.

Foreign Studies

Common Demographic Profile of Children

Gender and disruptive behavior

Parenting Preschoolers with Disruptive Behavior Disorders Does Child Gender Matter? 8-19-2013 Antonya M. Gonzalez, Washington University in St Louis. –  This study is related to the present study because it deals with parental responses to child behavior (to girl or boy) that can have an important impact on later behavioral outcomes. Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders often engage in externalizing and disruptive behaviors  which usually elicit negative responses from parents. Boys are more frequently diagnosed with these disorders, resulting in a dearth of literature on parental responses to girls with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Studies have found that parents react more negatively when girls engage in disruptive behavior, plausibly because it is contrary to societal gender expectations.

Parents Intervention

HYPERLINK”/Reports/ Order %20in%20the%20Classroom-Violence,%20Discipline.pdf” \t “_parent” 1995, has published that a certain study stressed that environmental factors  causes disruptive behaviors and can be managed with common-sense approaches including concentrating on the child’s positive behaviors and ignoring the  undesirable behaviors. There should also be clear, simple, consistent consequences for disruptive behavior. Parents can promote positive behaviors by noticing and praising children’s good behaviors as often as possible. A useful way of remembering this is the phrase “Catch them when they’re good”  consequently that appropriate expectations of children’s behavior and the basic principles of behavior change go a long way to understanding and managing disruptive behaviors and that when behaviors are given attention, they tend to be repeated.

Barton, P.E.2009, added that any attention given to a behavior (telling off and yelling count as attention) increases the chances that it will happen again.

Obviously, severe physical punishment may be some kind of deterrent, but carries many detrimental consequences in terms of unhappy relationships, emotional problems, poor self-esteem, and anger.

Review of Related Literature and Studies of Chapter 2, click below:

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Foreign Studies

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Gender & Parents Intervention

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Overt Inattentive

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Tardiness and Laziness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Misbehavior

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) – Aggressiveness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) –Economic Background & Justification

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Or Dissertation Making . Call or text to 09268212800

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Main Livelihood Infrastructure Resources

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Population, Households

MAIN LIVELIHOOD

Titay is endowed with natural resources, particularly natural forest and rich agricultural land which are currently the source of economic and livelihood opportunities for the residents. Wide area for rice valley and some potential agricultural lands for rubber, coconut and other agricultural products. We are also rich in mineral resources such manganese, chromites, copper and gold found in different barangays such as Culasian, Mabini, San Isidro and Longilog. There are more mineral deposits in our municipality but mostly unexplored. Titay has also protection forest for water conservation located at Barangay Culasian.

Municipality of Titay has more than 8 waterfalls, most still unexplored. These are Tagbilat Falls, Cobacob Falls, Malagandis Falls, Gomotoc Falls, Basay Falls, Dalisay Falls, Diokoy Falls and Culasian Falls. This attributed to the vastness of its forest covered with depths that can only reached by foot. And this may have contributed to Titay’s water being the best tasting in the entire province. Titay has also Underground River in Barangay Mate, and caves in New Canaan and Moalboal.

Forest Resources

The forest area in the Municipality of Titay covers  15,602 hectares. It is found in 22 barangays and these are considered already as second growth forest. Barangays with no forests are Poblacion, Azusano,Camanga,Dalangin,Dalangin Muslim, Kitabog, Mabini, and Poblacion Muslim. The forest abound with such hardwood and dipthero carp trees spices like yakal, apitong, tanguile, red and white lawaan, etc. Aside from lumber, non-timber and other minor forest products like different species of rattan, nito, and other wildlife for some purposes are also available.

Physical/Infrastructure Resources

  1. Transportation Network

                Efficient transport facilities are necessary to support the basic production sector. It serve as incentives for investor to set/expand their investment plans. The municipality of Titay is accessible by land transportation. The National Highway to Zamboanga del Norte traverse right through the town. There are utility vehicles plying the  inter-municipal route; jeeps, single  motors ( habal-habal), tricycles, buses, vans, cargo trucks, tankers, containers  from Ipil to Titay and vice versa at all hours of the day.

Buses of Rural Transit Inc. can be available bound to Ipil and Zamboanga del Norte , Zamboanga del Sur and Zamboanga City. It is available in every 30 minutes during day and night time.  Jeepneys and Single Motors ( Habal-Habal) are available going to  Barangay San Antonio and all barangays going to West and North Bound. Single Motors are also available going to East bound and it can also be reached with Four (4) wheels vehicles but no public utility jeeps plying the route. Going to North and South bound can all be reached by all types of vehicles. There are  lots of vehicles utilized for private services in the town.

We have bus terminal and “Habal-Habal” (Motor) terminal located at public Market with Comfort room for men and women

Map 8 –  Road Network Map

Road Network Map 2

2.2.2 Income and Poverty Incidence

2.2.3 Existing and Proposed Land Uses

Land use classification includes agricultural, industrial, commercial, residential, recreation areas, critical/ conservation areas, undeveloped areas/ danger areas, others.

Titay CLUP and Cadastral Survey has not yet approved which made the Titay Municipal Planning and Development Council  hesitant to provide the specific area for the Existing and Proposed Land Use while the Titay Municipal Assessor has not also able to undergo a complete Tax Mapping to determine the area of every category on Land Use. So the Titay Local Shelter Planners (Titay LSP) agreed only to show the volume and speed of the assessment of the Categories of Land Use with regards to assessment of the real property from Assessment Statistical Records 2010 (See Table 12 ) taken  from the Office of the Municipal Assessor of this municipality.  In addition to these, table and map will be presented for support.

The Map below shows the proposed and some other are already existing land use of the municipality and it has two classifications of land uses as per MOA of the LGU and the DENR and that are Alienable and Disposable Area with an area of 20,635 hectares while Forest land has an area of 15,602 hectares which make a total area of 36,237 hectares of the municipality for Titay. Forest land is 43.06% and 56.94% for Alienable and Disposable Area to the total land area of Titay.

The Forest Area has been inhabited with stakeholders and these stakeholders are using the land mainly for agricultural purposes by planting perennial crops while others are planting with annual and semi annual crops.  The LGU has a Memorandum of Agreement with DENR that land classified as Forest Land must be utilized by stakeholders by planting perennial crops such as rubber, fruit trees and some other trees. Annual and semi-annual crops are discouraged and no longer advisable as stipulated in the MOA. While the Alienable and Disposable Area is just like the Forest, it is utilized also by the stakeholders for agricultural purposes. Aside from agricultural, this is also utilized as residential, commercial, industrial and some other uses.

As Reflected earlier (See Map 3 – Slope map) that 08% slope (21,001.9 ha.), level to undulating and 8-18% slope (4,944.902 ha.) of undulating to rolling has the largest and 2nd to the largest area respectively being used by stakeholders. In here, all the possible land uses is applicable just like as residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural and some other uses. Whereas the 30-50% slope (3,138.035 ha.) will be utilized as agricultural as long as it is planted with fruit trees or rubber trees. All the slopes can be used to agricultural purposes except the above 50% slope which is mountainous and where the LGU and the DENR has come to a MOA that this  area is put into a protected zone and considered that only premium trees can be planted and no other. Those trees that are already existing will be preserved and cutting of trees is completely disallowed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Map – 9 Land Classification

 

Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 / Hazard Map

10. Hazard Fault and Epicenter

The map below (Map 7) that commercial sites of Titay is located in between of these 2 faults, where also the municipal hall is situated and having a distance of 316.70 meters away from 200/severe measure fault line which meant as the most severe impact.

The very center of the fault lines will shake minimally compared to the 200 meters wide periphery of the fault lines which has the highest impact.

The Planners has considered the displaced units inhabited with  299 and 191 households  found densely  in barangay Palomoc and Namnama respectively and are coencidentially situate along the 200 meters wide periphery  which is the most impact portion of fault line due to the presence of the national high way and barangay hall going to Tampilisan, Zamboanga del Norte.

2.2 Urban Developments Trends

2.2.1 Population Size and Structure

DEMOGRAPHY

Table -2  Population Composition by School-Age, Working-Age, Dependent-Age Group and Sex   Year 2010

Age Group Both Sexes Male Female Sex Ratio

(Male to Female

No. % No. %
School going population
     Pre school (3-6) 4,617 2,481 53.74 2,136 46.26 116 : 86
     Elementary (7-12) 7,320 3,879 52.99 3,441 47.01 113 : 89
     Secondary (13-16) 4,605 2,467 53.57 2,138 46.43 115 : 87
     Tertiary (17-21) 4,427 2,365 54.29 2,062 46.58 115 : 87
Working age (15 & 64) 27,218 14,778 54.30 12,440 45.71 119 : 84
Labor Force (15 & over) 29,047 15,772 53.28 13,275 45.70 119 : 84
Dependent Population
      Young (0-14) 17,935 9,556 53.28 8,379 46.72 114 : 88
     Old ( 65-over) 1,549 818 52.81 731 47.19 112 : 89

        Source: DepEd and Computed based on the data on Household Population by Age Group.

Titay has 43,723 household populations in 2007. It increased by 5.88% or 2,733 by 2010.  8.52% of the total provincial population of Zamboanga Sibugay comprised the household population of the municipality of Titay. Male populations dominated by 5.62% over female. There are 52.81% males and 47.19% females which mean there are 111 males in every 89 females. In age group, 9.94% of the total population are pre schoolers; 15.75% is elementary; 9.52% tertiary; 58.59% belongs to working age; 62.52% labor force and 41.19% are dependent populations. Among the age group, Labor force has the biggest in terms of population size followed by working age. Old dependents comprised the smallest among the age group as shown in table 1.

The municipal sex ratio declines in the older age groups. It characterized by a typical broad base at the bottom consisting a large numbers of children and a narrow top made up of a relatively small number of elderly. Majority of the population under school going population is dominated by elementary with 7,320 or 35.42% of the total school going population. It also shows that male dominated female resulting a sex ratio of 115 male for every 87 females.

Labor force population are also dominated by males with a sex ratio of 119 males in every 84 females. In the same period, depended population which consist of young and old population are dictated by males over female with a sex ratio of 113 males in every 88 females.

Titay Local Shelter Plan – Chapter 2 Slopes / Hazard Areas

Chapter 1 

Slopes

Land characterized as mountainous and strongly sloping is unevenly distributed in different barangays. Only Barangay Azusano and Dalangin Muslim are plain and flat. The mountainous areas are found in barangays of Kipit, San Isidro, New Canaan, Namnama and Tugop Muslim. Barangay Kipit has its peak  of 893 meters above sea level. The rest of the land is moderately sloping and nearly gentle its nature.

It is shown on the map that 0-8% slope is level to undulating and so far it covers the largest portion of the area of the municipality and it is followed with 8-18% slope, undulating to rolling which has an area of 4,944.049 hectares. The least occupied slope is above 50% slope and considered as mountainous having an area of 2,318.179 hectare

2.1.5 Vulnerability to Multiple Hazards

Landslides and Flood

The plains of Azusano usually visited with floods almost every year and leaved damages every time there floods almost every year and leaved damages everytime the flood subsided.

The Office of the Agricuture ( See Annex 8 – Titay, Lowland Rice Damage, 2010) has recorded lowland rice crop damage of 5 Barangays and that were Namnama, Palomoc, Achasol and Azusano.  There has a total of 400.12 hectares of land affected with flood which resulted to an estimate of 652.96 metric tons of rice loss in which amounted to P 31, 374,409.22.  There are cases of landslides in some barangays like in the case of Palomoc but there has no damage recorded or loss of lives and propereties.

Municipality of Titay has hazard areas and that are landslides and flood.  The most prone on land slides is found almost all the area of barangay San Isidro, portion of Longilog, San Antonio and Dalisay considering the 50% and up slope. There are also barangays prone to landslides and that are found in Palomoc, Culasian, Malagandis, Supit, Tugop Muslim and kipit. While barangay prone to flood are Bangco, Azusano, Dalangin, portion of Namnama, Poblacion, Achasol and Tugop.   While Almost all parts of Dalangin are prone to flood.

The SW4 is prone to flood considering that the area is just like basin during heavy rain that catches all the excess water from surrounding uplands and water from 2 rivers that coming from the municipality of Kalawit that met somewhere in Barangay Namnama. These water from 2 rivers usually overflow and occupied some parts of plains and drainage is so limited and can’t accommodate all the water right away, instead, some barangays were flooded for several days enough to make damages on rice fields drained. The SW5 showed that it is prone on moderate to high susceptibility of landslide followed by SW1.

–  On how denuded is the catchments area or forestland is also the ratio of its susceptibility to landslides and flood. It is found out also that there are 20 to 100 settlements or households presently residing at Tugop Muslim that is prone to Landslide.

–  There are 100 to 300 settlements or households found at Barangay Azusano that is high susceptible to flood.

  1. Presence of Hazard areas in terms of Epee Center & Faults

Titay has Epee Center and that is somewhere between in Barangay San Isidro and San Antonio.  It was recorded that this Epee center has experienced a ground shaking on March 1, 1964 at 12.54 PM/AM with a  7.3 magnitude.

                Severe ground shaking usually starts from Epee Center. When the Epee center shakes, simultaneously the impact will be distributed gradually to the fault lines. Nearby barangays who have distinct faultlines will shake too that affected or the the whole municipality or even wider which depends upon the magnitude.

When global warming continues to intensify due to deforestation, there has a tendency that this Epee Center will be affected and will have again a ground shaking or earthquakes.

The above figures would help local government to evaluate what are the necessary moves when it comes to structures and infra projects for the development of the municipality and for the safety of the constituents.

The municipality of Titay has distinctive and visible fault lines. Barangay Kipit has 3 fault lines while Tugop Muslim has one faultline. Two fault lines parallel with each other having an average distance between them of 1,573.39 meters traversing Titay. One of the fault lines traversing Titay passes in Palomoc, Namnama, Poblacion, Dalangin Muslim, Dalangin, Acasol and down to San Antonio. While the  other fault line that  traversing across  are Culasian, Malagandis, Dalangin, Poblacion Muslim,  Mabini and again in San Antonio.

 

Titay Local Shelter Plan Chapter 2 Continuation

Chapter 1 Introduction

CHAPTER 2

2.0 MUNICIPAL OVERVIEW

2.1 Geographic Location and Features

  • Location Map of Titay

Map 1- Location Map of Titay

The Municipality of Titay is located in the second district of Zamboanga Sibugay among the town of the western municipalities. It is the last municipality going to Zamboanga Del Norte. It is located about 147 kilometers away from Pagadian City and about 154 Kilometers to Zambaonga City and about 178 km. to Dipolog City.   Titay is bounded on the North by the municipalities of Gutalac and Kalawit, Zamboanga del Norte; on South of R. T. Lim and Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay; on the East by Naga, Zamboanga Sibugay and on the west by Baliguian and Siocon, Zamboanga del Norte.   The town Poblacion is specifically located at  7°48’30″N to 7°54’0″ latitude and 122°24’30″E to 122°35’30″E longitude.

Municipality of Titay can be reached by passengers from adjacent municipalities by the use of land transportation.

Titay has 30 barangays.   These barangays are   Achasol, Azusano, Bangco, Camanga, Culasian, Dalisay Dalangin, Dalangin Muslim, Gomotoc, Imelda, Kipit, Kitabog, La Libertad, Longilog, Malagandis, Mabini, Mate,  Moalboal, Namnama, New Canaan, San Antonio, Supit, San Isidro, Palomoc, Poblacion, Poblacion Muslim, Pulidan and Tugop, Tugop Muslim, and Santa Fe.

2.1.2  Land Area

Titay has land classification of forest lands which has an area of 15,602 hectares and alienable and disposable with an area of 20,635 hectares which make a total area of the municipality of 36,237 hectares.

2.1.3  Climate

The climate of the municipality is belonging to Type IV with no distinct dry or wet season, which is favorable to the cultivation of crops. Moderate rain is experienced in the month of April and gradually gaining momentum in May and June. Heavy rains start from the month of July to August and gradually decline from September to January. Average monthly rainfall is pegged at 165.13mm, and tenths. Dry months start January to April with intermittent rain during new moons of each month.

Temperature in the municipality is fairly warm throughout the year. The relative humidity is comparatively high and uniform. Temperature is high during the months of April to May and low during the rainy months of August and September.

Titay is outside the typhoon belt area, occurrence of typhoon is not experienced in the locality, instead minor occurrence of weather depression with strong winds and rains are felt. Prevailing wind during the summer months called “Amihan”, blows towards the north during the rainy months.

2.1.4  Topography and Soils

Almost one-third of the total land of area of the town is characterized as mountainous and mountain ranges. The remaining areas are composed of undulating rolling hills and steep slopes forming a valley of approximately 18,000 hectares.

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Foreign Sudies

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Foreign Sudies

THE EFFECTS OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR TO THE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF GRADE IV & V PUPILS IN CABANGLASAN DISTRICT

Click here to guide you by Chapters – CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

IntroductionConceptual FrameworkSchematic DiagramStatement of the Problem; Null HypothesisSignificance of the StudyScope & Delimitation;

CHAPTER II – Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study. The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background; insight and to supplement the ideas in the present investigation.

Foreign Studies

Range of Violent Behavior; Scott S; Knapp M; Henderson J;  Maughan B: Financial cost of social exclusion: follow up study of antisocial children into  adulthood.  BMJ   2010; Disruptive behavior were in the form of overt inattentiveness, misbehavior, tardiness and laziness at school.  There are also children and adolescents that had a wide range of behaviors: explosive temper tantrums, physical aggression, sleeping, reading of papers or any magazines or books not related to the subject matters that was taken on that specific time.

The above mentioned outward expressions of children having disruptive behavior are related to the present study because children who have this kind of character shown at school will disrupt not only the teachers but also the doer themselves and all the individual present in the room.

Mental Health Association America, 2005 NMHA is a national organization dedicated promoting mental health through education and advocacy. What can be done if a child shows disruptive behavior?

The goals of treatment typically focus on helping the child to: learn how to control his/her anger; express anger and frustrations in appropriate ways; be responsible for his/her actions; and accept consequences. In addition, family conflicts, school problems, and community issues must be addressed.

Barton, P.E.2009, reported from his study that each child arrives in the world with a particular profile of temperamental traits, for example, getting excited quickly compared with being really laid back , being very active and restless compared with being placid and relaxed, and seeking out stimulation compared with shrinking from stimulation. Different temperamental traits drive different kinds of behavior. For example a child who is easily excitable may have more temper outbursts than a child who is very placid.

Kim-Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton R: What are the “warning signs” for violent behavior in children?Kim Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton  R:  Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort.  Arch Gen Psychiatry   2005;

Children who have several risk factors  showed  the following behaviors should be carefully evaluated: intense anger, frequent loss of temper or blow-ups, extreme irritability, extreme impulsiveness, becoming easily frustrated.   Parents, teachers and institutions dealing with children such as school administrators will go hand in hand to understand and find ways to minimize such behavior.

Evidenced-based parent programs for reducing disruptive behavior in Children; Author: Ph.D. Candidate Gavita Oanalex, 2010 – The study is related to the study because it relates the cause and effect of disruptive behavior and it stressed that poor parenting practices are related to disruptive behaviors, while positive parenting practices are protective factors. Indeed, parents who engaged in more negative parenting practices, such as the use of harsh and inconsistent discipline, often report higher externalizing and internalizing problems in both children and adolescents.

(Burke et al., 2006; and Frick, 1994) has a study that children’s disruptive behavior has been linked with different aspects of parenting practices, such as monitoring, harassing and inconsistent discipline, etc. Wasserman et al., 2002, found out that punitive discipline of parents has been found to be a common risk factor for children with oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive, and internalizing behaviors.

           (Burke et al., 2002),has a study that physically aggressive punishment seems to be linked to child aggression, while low parental warmth/involvement was associated to oppositional child behavior.

Review of Related Literature and Studies in Chapter 2, click below:

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Foreign Studies

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Gender & Parents Intervention

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Overt Inattentive

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Tardiness and Laziness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Misbehavior

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) – Aggressiveness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) –Economic Background & Justification