CHAPTER V of thesis entitled Disruptive Behavior of Kids / Children

CHAPTER V

Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

This chapter presents the summary and findings, discuss relevant conclusions, suggest recommendations, in the light of the conclusions drawn from the study.

Summary

This study attempted to determine the extent of factors associated with disruptive behavior affecting the school performance of Grade IV and V pupils in Cabanglasan District, school year 2013-2014.

This study employed the descriptive method.  The respondent were 43 pupils of Cabanglasan District, Cabanglasan, Bukidnon.  The extent of disruptive behavior of the pupils was taken based on the answers in the questionnaire of their teachers. Teachers observation to the respondents during class hours or during classroom instruction were been reflected by answering the said questionnaires. Statistical tools were  _____________________.

The instrument was administered personally by the researcher to the teachers that have pupils who were identified by them as having disruptive behavior of grade 4 and grade 5 pupils in Cabanglasan District, school year 2013-2014.  Purposive sampling was used on selecting the respondents, picking all the cases that meet the criterion. The teachers answered their questionnaire during vacant time and or anytime that were convenient to them.  Other teachers answered their questionnaire at home.

Findings

 

Based on the data gathered the major findings of the study are the following:

  1. Majority of the respondents are male (39), aged 11 years old and up (27), parents who are elementary graduate of (27) mother with (34) father, having 4-6 in the family (29) and belong to a poor family or families that were beneficiaries of “Pantawid Program” (31).
  2. All of the respondents identified by their teachers as having a disruptive behavior were subjected to “parents’ intervention” (43) or 100%. Some of them have been subjected once only (16) while the majority has subjected to 2 times and more (27).
  3. Generally, the extent of factors associated with disruptive behavior in terms of overt inattentiveness, misbehavior and aggressiveness were rated disruptive behavior while persistent tardiness and laziness has rated highly disruptive behavior. The rating of the respondents that are disruptive reconciled to the result that all of the respondents were subjected to “parents’ intervention” not only once but some were twice and even more.
  4. It was found out that there has no significant difference on the extent of factors associated with disruptive behavior affecting the school performance of pupils in terms of misbehavior, overt inattentiveness, aggressiveness and persistent tardiness & laziness which has a significant difference in terms of gender as demographic profile.
  5. It was found out that children having disruptive behavior and highly disruptive behavior affects their school performance to the extent of poor rating in overall their grades.

 

Conclusions:

In the light of the findings, the following conclusions emerged:

  1. There are more male pupils in Cabanglasan District who were on their age of 11 years old and up who are not on their proper age against the grade 4 and grade 5 level whose parents were elementary graduate with enough number of children in the family and majority are poor families. Therefore these children are product of very occupied and busy parents who cannot give enough support financially, emotionally to their children especially towards school programs and activities.
  2. The greater the grade 4 and grade 5 pupils are exposed to disruptive behavior in terms of overt inattentiveness, misbehavior, aggressiveness and highly disruptive behavior on persistent tardiness and laziness during classroom instructions, the greater the chances for them to be affected in their school performance.
  3. “Parents intervention” is the right move for the teachers to do but not just end that way. Teachers / school administrators and parents must set down to talk about existing behavior of the pupils especially to persistent tardiness and laziness which rated highly disruptive.
  4. Grade IV and V pupils were affected when there are disruptive behavior that occurred such as overt inattentiveness, misbehavior, aggressiveness, and persistent tardiness and laziness. Such interruptions, not along the respondent or the one who made disruptions were affected but all the individual found in the class.
  5. Parents’ intervention among pupils cannot guarantee that disruptive behavior will be minimized in the class unless there has something to introduce to educate the parents of what is “parenthood”.

Recommendations:

Based on the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are presented:

  1. Dep-Ed authorities like school administrator, teachers, and staff should maximize their capacity and initiative to tap stakeholders support like parents to work hand in hand in the improvements and giving/formulating interventions for the pupils having disruptive behavior to learn more virtues, skills and uplift the pupils’ attitude and interests.
  2. Dep-Ed officials and stakeholders such as Parents Teachers Associations, must design a program/project as a sort of alternatives/ options for the pupils such that parents are an essential part of treatment for their child’s disruptive behavior disorder. The most effective interventions seen are “parent-based.”  Stakeholders such as Barangay Officials and PTA will work for this by promoting seminars that can educate the parents who are majority elementary graduate.  This will be realized as early as possible when Dep-Ed will tap its activites during “Pantawid Program’ meetings or gathering which usually done not less than one in a month in their respective barangays.Through educating them that would let them enlightened their responsibilities as parents and able to understand about the behavior of their children and to make alternatives to improve it.
  3. Dep-Ed communities of stakeholders must work collectively to plan in service trainings for teachers as well as school administrators on matters pertaining to minimizing or even control the disruptive behavior of children by improving their school facilities and some other priorities for the childrens’ welfare and be good citizen in the future. A sort of a program or organizations that parents and children will interact with the cooperation/guidance of Dep-Ed personnel.
  1. Diane L. Smallwood and Evangeline Kern “Defusing Violent Behavior in Schools” Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
    2.   Chris D. Erickson, Ph.D. and Monica M. Megivern, Ed.D. A study “COMPARING TREATMENTS FOR AGGRESSION AMONG CHILDREN EXPOSED TO VIOLENCE”  at George Washington University,
    3. Department of Counseling/Human and Organizational Studies,Washington, DC.
    4. Chris D. Erickson, Ph.D. and Monica M. Megivern, Ed.D. at George Washington University, Department of Counseling/Human and Organizational Studies,Washington, DC.
    5.  William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP – Emergency Medicine & H. Michael O’Connor, MD – Emergency Medicine
  2. Barton, P.E.,Coley, R.J., & Wenglinsky,H. (1998). Order in the Classroom: Violence, Discipline and Student Achievement. Policy Information Center: Research Division. University of the philippines
  3. http://www.keystosaferschools.com/Reports/Order%20in%20the%20Classroom-Violence,%20Discipline.pdf
  4. Brannon, D. (2008). Character Education: It’s a Joint Responsibility. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 44(2), 62-65. Retrieved from ERIC: 2816294
  5. Brimi, H. (2009). Academic Instructors or Moral Guides? Moral Education in America and the Teacher’s Dilemma. Clearing House, 82(3), 125-130. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete: 35608363
  6. Bryan, L. (2005). Once Upon a Time: A Grimm Approach to Character Education. Journal of Social Studies Research, 29(1), 3-6. Retrieved from ERIC 161376614
  7. Butler-Banks, C. (2010, February 4,). PRIDE in school and self: Waterloo Middle School uses character education to improve academics. New York Teacher, LI(9), 18-
  8. Bulach, C. (2002). Implementing a Character Education Curriculum and Assessing Its Impact on Student Behavior. Clearing House, 76(2), 79. Retrieved from ERIC:9270870
  9. Tubigon, E. (2013) Looking at Filipino pre-service teacher’s value for education and Childrens’ Character.  The Asia- Pacific Education Researcher.
  10. Fernandez, R. (2003) Why Kids Disrupt? “Health and Home Philippines”
  11. Kim-Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton

R (2006): What are the “warning signs” for violent behavior in children?

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Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY – Chapter 5

Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

.This chapter presents the summary of findings, the conclusion drawn, and the recommendations offered.

Summary

This study attempted to answer the question related to the effect of teenage pregnancy on educational development of students  and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon. Firstly, this study endeavored to identify perception of the respondents on the causes of teenage pregnancy in terms of the following factors: the family, with a mean of 4.13, the respondents agreed that their parents are not open about the use of contraceptives at home; the levels of educational attainment of parents is low and the income is not enough to support the family. The respondents also agreed that parents don’t talk about consequences of plan or unplanned indulgence of sex. Secondly, this study attempted to find out the causes of teenage pregnancy as perceived by the respondents in terms of community factor. The findings showed that the respondents agreed to all indicators stated in the questionnaire.

A self-made questionnaire was employed to gather data of the study. Average Weighted Mean was used to find out the extent of teenage pregnancy among the respondents. T-test was also used to test the significant difference of the extent of the educational development when respondents were grouped according to age, educational attainment, type of school attended and the socio economic status of the family. Step-wise regression analysis was used to analyze which among the causes of teen-age pregnancy greatly affect the respondent’s educational development.

Findings

The following are the findings of the study:

1. the age level of the majority of the respondents is between 17 to 18 years old. This constitute 38.3 percent of the population. The educational attainment of the respondents were mostly high school and elementary level. Only few or 18.3 percent of the respondents make it to college. While 14 of the respondents are still studying, majority are out-of-school youth, who, after pregnancy prefer to stay at home and take care of their babies. With regards to the type of school attended, majority or 78.3 percent are from public school. The monthly income of the family of the big majority of the respondents is less than Php 5,000.

2. When the perception of the respondents on the causes of teenage pregnancy in terms of family factor, the data showed that parents’ family factor, not being open about the use of contraceptives and permissive attitudes towards premarital sex were contributory to teenage pregnancy. Parents not being open about the use of contraceptive at home ranked first with a mean of 4.13. The lowest rank were respondents moderately agree was members of the family learned about sex from pornographic, playboy, television and internet. This has a mean of 2.88.

3. It was also found out that parents who work outside the home giving teenagers time to be alone most often. This is ranked first with a mean of 3.7 and a description of “Agree”. This was followed by teenage couple usually indulge in sexual activities out of curiosity with a mean of 3.55 and agreed by the respondents. Moderately agreed also by the respondents is the indicator, “Drugs and intoxicating drinks are usually introduced during group gathering

4. In terms of the perception of the respondents or the causes of Teenage pregnancy in terms of community factor, the respondents agreed o all indicators

The highest of which are out-of-school youth teenagers in the community that are earning for a living; 4.18; pregnant unwed teenagers are often frowned in the community; 4.16 and majority of families in the community have very low income and not enough to support the needs of the family; 4.15 another indicator like unwed pregnant women usually prohibit themselves from attending church activities can also be surmised as effect that the respondents felt in the community.

5. With regards to the educational development of the respondents after pregnancy, a very significant findings were shown in their strong agreement of 5 indicators namely: “I am hurt when I hear people talk about me; with a mean of 4.43; I find difficult to attend school due to my pregnancy, with a mean of 4.41; I experience very low self- esteem due to my pregnancy with a mean of 4.30; I find it difficult to study because my attention is focused on the baby with a mean of 4.27 and my priority is to look for a part time job to support my babywith a mean of 4.23.

6. Tukey’s test, the multiple comparison test on the differences of the educational development of the respondents, points out which of the age brackets are significantly different from each other. Finding shows teenagers aged 16 years old and below have the same educational development with the rest of the age brackets since the computed mean difference on their responses are very small to reject the null hypothesis and the computed P-values are greater than the level of significance.

7. Finally the analysis of variance on the educational development of the respondents when classified to monthly income as shown in Table 15 are close to each other ranging from 3.95 to 4.10. This means that the educational development or the desires of the respondents to continue their studies after giving birth are the same regardless of the monthly income of their parents.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, it is clearly shown that the respondents perception on the causes of teenage pregnancy are the following: family; the respondents agreed that their parents are not open about the using contraceptive at home; the level of educational attainment of parents is low and and the income is not enough to support the family. The data likewise showed that teenagers learned about sex from pornographic magazines, television and internet and since parents work outside the homes, teenagers are left alone with barkadas and friends at home hanging out together thus more likely indulge in premarital sex, The community was also considered as one factor that may cause teen-age pregnancy. Many community elders gamble and drink, and their drinking spree becomes the usual sight teenagers see among their elders everyday. The findings also confirms that pregnant unwed teenagers are often frowned by people in the community. Religiousity is not also manifested among families in the communities.

Finally the findings indicate that the educational development or the desire

of the respondents to continue their studies after giving birth are the same regardless of the monthly income of their parents.

Recommendations

Having identified the effects of tee-age pregnancy on the educational development of students and out-of-school , the following recommendations are put forward.

1. Strengthen the collaboration between parents and school to guide the teenagers parents and school to guide the teenagers the dangers of indulging in pre-marital sex especially that they are still studying. Likewise it is recommended that during PTC/PTA Meetings , the parents must be informed to closely monitored their children.

2. The School Administration should strengthen its homeroom and guidance program, so that teenagers will be given information and counseling regarding boy-girl relationship.

3. The teachers, especially class advisers must act as the second parents to teenagers especially those in need of parental guidance.

4. Involve the community in giving teenagers good models of values and character. Local officials should pass ordinances to prohibit teenagers from taking alcoholic drinks, cigarettes and the dangers of drugs.

5. The school curricula must not only integrate values in all subject areas but also information about the reproductive organs.

6. Education programs should be designed to address pressing and urgent concerns regarding teen-age pregnancy and collaborate with other agencies like DSWD and Health Care Units to help teenagers avoid premarital sex and live a healthy life style.

7. Local communities should provide recreational programs and facilities to give teenagers gainful and wholesome activities.

Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY – Chapter 3

Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

CHAPTER III

Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research design, research locale, the respondents, sampling procedure, data gathering tools, the scoring procedure and the treatment data in the foregoing study.

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Research Design

Basically, this study employed a descriptive- qualitative research design. Certain questions were designed  to draw out responses on specific information regarding the future plans of the respondents despite the conditions that they are in.

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Research Locale

This study was be conducted at Maramag, Bukidnon. This municipality was be purposively chosen because of its accessibility to the researcher in gathering data for the reason that this municipality is developing and the researcher is concerned of the teenagers who get pregnant in the locality and are often the  topics of  the bystanders and acquaintances of the respondent who are affected with the sudden twist of their life situation.

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Respondents of the study

The respondents of this study were  be selected teenage students and out of school youth who got pregnant from the year 2009-2013 in Maramag, Bukidnon. They were chosen to provide vital information about the effects of teenage pregnancy to their educational development.  These respondents wereselected to generate information of the effects of teenage pregnancy and to

thefamily, community, peers and the church denomination where they are affiliated.

The respondents of the study are those whose ages range from  12 to 19 years old who got pregnant while still in school. Data about the respondents can be obtained from health centers, hospital, inquiries from friends and neighbors, co teachers and Municipal Social Welfare Development or (MSWD) office.

The local government has programs for the moral and economic development of the youth but still lacks implementation thus creating problems among teenagers.

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Sampling  Procedure

The method that was used in choosing the respondents was purposive sampling picking all the cases that meet the criterion.   The researcher will chose  purposive sampling, considering that the population of respondents is small and there are lots to consider on securing the respondents’ participation.   Furthermore, the victims might be ashamed to disclose their  experiences, some don’t want to refresh their  sad past chapter of their  lives, others have transferred to other place and there are still others that were  not be reached for comments.

All teenage students and out of school youth who got pregnant from the year 2009-2013 were involved and prioritized. The researcher  hoped to gather not less than 60  respondents all throughout the Municipality of Maramag, Bukidnon.

The Research Instrument

The researcher employed a self- made questionnaire to gather data of the present study Part I is the demographic profile of the respondents. This was included  their name, age, age when pregnant, name of school attended, educational attainment and the economic background of the respondents. The second part of the questionnaire deals with the causes of teenage pregnancy. Part III includes questions on educational development after pregnancy. And Part  IV is the questions on the future plans of the respondents.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher sought permission from the health centers in Maramag, Bukidnon to be given pertinent data of teenage  pregnancy cases for year 2009 to 2013. Further the office of the Municipal Social Welfare Development (MSWD) was requested to give information regarding cases of teenage pregnancy in the municipality.

Inquiries from barangay officials, friends, co-teachers, neighbors and relatives were also be considered in the possible search for respondents.

Once the researcher has identified a qualified respondent, she will personally approached  the target respondent and explain to her the study that the researcher is presently doing. The researcher also explained to her that her cooperation mean a lot for the success of the said study.

A researcher- made questionnaire was administered personally by the researcher.

Statistical Treatment

In the analysis of the data of the study, the researcher employed the following statistical tools.

Frequency and Percentage. This was  used to determine the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age when pregnant, status, type of school attended and their economic background.

Average Weighted Mean. This was used to find out the extent  of Teenage pregnancy among the students and out of school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

The t-test was likewise  used to test the significant difference of the extent on the educational development of teenage pregnancy when grouped according to age, educational attainment, status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

Step- Wise Regression Analysis. Was employed to analyze which among the major causes of teenage  pregnancy greatly affect the respondents educational development.

Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY – Chapter 2 – Family

Click here to guide you by chapters – Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

“TEENAGE PREGNANCY: ITS EFFECT ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL YOUTH IN MARAMAG, BUKIDNON “

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Click more parts of Chapter 2⇒ FamilyCommunityChurch Involvement;  Peers;  Media;  Effects of Pregnancy and Justification

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CHAPTER 2

 Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study.  The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background, insight and to supplement the ideas  in the present investigation.

The tremendous speed of technological innovations requires, that the teenagers keep pace to the present-day changes.   Such as teenagers in the Philippine must be protected against the increasing trend of teenage pregnancy as it happened on this  latest decade.   And another decades of the same trend is already detrimental to the educational development of students and out of school youth in the country.  There are factors that trigger teenagers prone to be pregnant and that are Family,   Community   Church Involvement;  Peers and Media;

Family

In the Philippines,  the NSO 2013, data showed that 13-14 percent  of all registered marriages are among teenagers below 20 years old while data from the National Youth Commission  show that the rate of teen pregnancy in the country is among the highest in the ASEAN region and the only country where the rate is increasing. The global issue of teen pregnancy is  the reason why the annual celebration of  World Population Day —  July 11 — lead by UNFPA, focuses on addressing teen pregnancy.  Benjamin de Leon, president of the Forum for Family Planning and Development in the Philippines, an NGO working on adolescent health issues, expressed alarm that almost 10 percent of all Filipino women aged 15-19 have already given birth. “This is a reality that we must address, he said.There is an urgency for all sectors “to work together to help address adolescent reproductive health issues and teen pregnancy because of the health and economic implications to the country,” he said. “A high rate of teen pregnancy also means a high risk for maternal deaths among our young girls.”

The Philippines joins the rest of the world in calling the attention of Government and civil society groups to help address  rising teen pregnancies through better policies, improved education and information campaigns and programs that can reach our adolescents  in schools, in communities or wherever they may be,” de Leon said. In here he points out that every Filipino family,community, church involvement and peers of a teenager has a great role on this.

Domini Torivillas  (The Philippine Star) updated July 11, 2013.   There is evidence supporting the Reproductive Health Law that calls for sexuality education  among young students. Not that for teachingthe kids to engage in “safe” sex, but rather, for telling them why they should not engage in early sex, and yes, before marriage. With regulated sexuality education, the young are informed about sex, pregnancy, unplanned and planned, instead of through the internet or pornographic magazines that somehow manage to reach them. Peep into their rooms  and see copies of Playboy and  Pent house and other sexy publications tucked between the bed sheets, and  for-adults-only videos in the internet.   When the family disregard sex education at home, might one way that teenagers will be innocent about sex consequences and prone to early sex. The other one is when the family has poor values and can’t understand the need of teenagers economically, socially and emotionally might one reason too of teenage pregnancy.

.           Discover Questions in the Philippines”, July 14, 2013 (Online Survey). The factors that  triggers the increased of Teenage Pregnancy in the country are: Family problems, broken family/complicated family, peer pressure/bad influence, Media/Television/Movies-Influential Trends (regarding sex), Pornography, lack of attention, love, caring,  lack of moral values,  failure to nurture with good principle, Curiosity, Lack of Information about Sex (sex education), use of Illegal drugs, lack of Guidance, Prostitution (involves poverty), unintelligent decisions etc.

The main thrust of this study is to find out the factors behind the teenage pregnancy.   It is clear that some other factors on teenage pregnancy such as  peer pressure, media / movies or television, use of illegal drugs and Lack of Information about Sex (sex education) and some other factors are rooted or sprouted from 2 factors only and that are due to absence of  “Family Intervention”  and Educational Information about sex (sex education).

In here it was disclosed by ”Press release courtesy of DKT Reproductive Health Inc.”, 2012: that the National Statistics Office revealed that from 2000-2010, teenage pregnancy in the Philippines has increased by 65%, despite an almost 14% decline in teenage marriage in the same period. The increase was most  notable among girls aged 15 to 19, among whom live births rose 38% from the Family Health Survey disclosed that the primary reasons for teenage pregnancy are insufficient access to information about sexual health and reproductive health services specifically targeted at teens.

Actually the first access on Education of sex will start at home but in spite of campaign of Philippine government. Filipino families remain hesitant to open up sex to their children. Instead the government has find hard to implement sex education because of Filipino beliefs and values. (Billy & Brewster,2002),The family members of an adolescent exert considerable influence over his or her sexual behavior. Many aspects of family life influence a teen’s decision to become sexually active, use contraception, or continue with a pregnancy. Socio-economic status, family structure, parental attitudes, and parental communication and support all play an important role in a teen’s decision-making.Children of parents with low educational attainment, occupation and income are more likely to have sex at an early age, not use contraception consistently and become pregnant or cause a pregnancy.The values and behavior demonstrated by family members regarding sexual risk taking and early childbearing influence the teen’s own attitudes and behavior.

Parents with permissive attitudes about teen sex or premarital sex, or negative attitudes about contraception have children who are more likely to have unprotected sex and become pregnant .(Kim, Ridger, Harper, & Yang, 1974) Teens look to their parents as role models and very often reproduce their behavior. Therefore, it is not surprising that teens are more likely to initiate sex and become pregnant if their parents are having sex outside of marriage, cohabiting with a romantic or sexual partner, have had a child outside of marriage or gave birth as an adolescent.

Click to continue ⇒ Community

Chapter 2-Family

Chapter 2-Community;

Chapter 2-Church Involvement;

Chapter 2-Peers;

Chapter 2-Media;

Chapter 2-Effects of Pregnancy and Justification

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Chapter 1 On Thesis Making (Background)

 

 

Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY: Introduction

“TEENAGE PREGNANCY: ITS EFFECT ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL YOUTH IN MARAMAG, BUKIDNON “

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Click these to guide you by chapter: Chapter IChapter 11Chapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

Teenage Pregnancy – Title Page

Teenage Pregnancy – About the Author

Introduction;  Statement of the ProblemNull HypothesisSignificance of the StudyConceptual FrameworkIndependent and Dependent VariablesScope and Delimitation

Chapter I

Introduction;

Over the past few decades, teenage pregnancy has become a public concern which has generated a great deal of attention in the locality. Increasing awareness of the social and economic consequences of teenage pregnancy has led to a consensus opinion among policy makers  and the public that teenage pregnancy and child bearing is a significant social problem. It has been linked to an array of other social issues, such as welfare dependency, child health and well-being, out of wedlock births, fatherhood responsibility, child abuse and neglect, school drop-out and workforce development. (Torivillas, The Philippine Star, 2013).

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There was a strong agreement that teenage pregnancy rate is still on the increase and and every increased there has an additional consequences of abortions and fetus losses and yet reducing the number of births by this age group remains an important goal, Scott (1981).

The frequency of teenage pregnancy among the youth is alarming and has become more or less a fact of life in many nations of the world including Philippines. This remains both culturally deleterious and personally destructive. Teenage pregnancy has lots of effects on Educational Development of teenagers who are victims of this phenomenon. The Philippine government and other religious institutions  are studying every angle to look for ways to reduce untimely pregnancy among teenager. These are many factors which have been recognized by researchers and authors as being responsible for teenage pregnancy. It has been noted and well documented that today’s teenagers face more sexual temptation than previous generations. They seem to be more aware of sex and susceptible to the dangers of illicit sex. Today’s society is more bombarded with sexually oriented materials in the environment. The teenager are more vulnerable to sexual temptations. Health and Home, Philippines, Pregnant at 16, p.12-13 &22).

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According to Eruesgbefe, (2005). “Today’s teenagers have become more sexually active and promiscuous compared to their age mates of some thirty, forty or fifty years ago in the Nigerian situation”. He also asserted that, “The gradual departures from the traditions, customs and religious doctrine of the different ethnic groups on the premise of civilization have been largely responsible for this. Community and families must work hand in hand to shield their teenagers against these phenomena. Increases in both health and social problems are products of uncontrollable multiple sex partners among teenagers. Mainly because the youth cannot control their emotional feelings, they rush into untimely sex, in the belief that the act will be undetected.

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According to Albano (2001). In the Philippines, usually in a family, this category are not taught family life education by their parents and schools because of the sensitivity of the issue, this is contrary to the wide assumption that family life education is on. In practice, however, not much of sex education is taught in every Filipino family. Existing government family planning programs have been directed principally to married couples.

Maramag is still a growing community, cases of teenage pregnancy usually become a big issue to the neighbors and to the whole community. The family of the victim is in trauma discovering that their teenager was some months on her way already. Almost everybody is blaming the pregnant teenager of the consequences of her misdeeds. They focused their judgment to the victim but they did not bother to ask why and what were behind of indulging sex at teens and got pregnant not at the right time. The Philippine government through some of its agencies like Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)  and Department of Education (DepEd), introduced some strategies to minimize the increasing cases of pregnancy as observed after a decade in the Philippines. Sex education is being incorporated to the subject matters in school. RH bill could be a big help to let the teenagers know how to act about sex. Filipino families and communities is properly informed about their responsibilities to their youngsters with regards to sex.  While teenagers wherever they are must be reached to educate and be well informed how to counter early pregnancy.

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Religious sectors are also showing concerns about the teenagers by intensifying the activities at the church and detour  their interest while they are still young and not yet prepare to face the consequences brought about early sex. The churches now are also don’t want to left behind on nurturing the youths by instilling  to their minds  that early sex out of wed luck has consequences and the consequences hurt more than waiting. (Health and Home pp.13,2003).

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The researcher of this paper hope that after the study, she can impart some important strategies  and information she gained to the community, to the teachers, school administrators, parents and to the teenagers on how to minimize teenage pregnancy to students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

Click below to some parts of chapter 1 of this thesis:

Chapter I – Statement of the Problem

Chapter I – Null Hypothesis

Chapter I – Significance of the Study

Chapter I – Conceptual Framework;

Chapter – Independent and Dependent Variables

Chapter – Scope and Delimitation

Chapter – Definition of Terms

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