Chapter IV of thesis entitled TEENAGE PREGNANCY

Click Teenage Pregnancy  Questionnaire for Survey

Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

CHAPTER 4

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This  chapter  presents the findings, analysis and interpretation of data gathered . Presentation of data follows the sequence  in the statement of problem found in the study.

Problem 1. What is the demographic profile in terms of age, age when pregnant, educational, educational attainment, status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

Table 1. General Profile of the Respondents

Barangay No. of Respondents Percent
Anahawon 9 15
Base Camp 12 20
Dagumbaan 10 17
North 13 22
South 16 27
Total 60 100

The table shows that majority of the respondents were came from Barangay South Poblacion (16 out of 60 or 27%).  This may be because Barangay South Poblacion is the most thickly populated compared to some other barangays.  Aside from that, Barangay South Poblacion is a fast growing place when it comes to economic or it is highly urbanized all throughout  the barangays of Maramag. Due to this reasons teenagers both females and males especially out of school youth rushing in for earning a living as sales clerk, house helpers, baby care takers, gasoline boys, weight clifters “kargadors” and some others.  During their tour of duties they met and become lovers while their employers usually were busy on their business or job, leaving them alone at home were the usual trend between employees and employers,  which made their boyfriends having the chance to indulge early sex out of the absence of their employers.

Considering that Barangay South Poblacion is highly urbanized, parents earning a living usually busy and cannot monitor anymore the  where about  of their daughters doing things like viewing “ for adults only” on TV shows and going with peers anywhere else.

Barangay Anahawon has the least respondents, knowing that this barangay has the smallest population and a  little bet far from atmosphere that is commonly found in urban areas.   Parents here were still conservatives when it comes to teenagers whereabouts.

Table 2.  Distribution of the Respondents According to Age

Age Frequency Percent
16 years old and below 17 28.3
17 – 18 years old 23 38.3
19 – 20 years old 14 23.3
21 years old and above 6 10.0
Total 60 100.0

The general profile of the respondents includes their age, educational attainment, educational status, type of school attended, and monthly income. Table 2 shows that a large majority of the respondents are between ages 17 to 18 years old. This comprises 38.3 percent of the total respondents. This is followed by 16 years old and below which is 28.3 percent. By contrast, only 6 or 10 percent  are 21years old and above. The result is quite alarming since the findings showed that many of the respondents are still in their prime age and for those respondents who became pregnant while still in school, this would mean that they are just beginning to enjoy and experience their teenage life. Based on the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (2002),teenage pregnancy brings about life – changing outcomes and commitments. Thus their studies and ambitions will most likely be hampered as they will concentrate their attention to their new situation in life-taking care of the babies.

Table 3.  Distribution of the Respondents According to Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment Frequency Percent
Elementary level 7 11.7
Elementary Graduate 11 18.3
High School Level 23 38.3
High School Graduate 8 13.3
College Level 11 18.3
Total 60 100.0

Data according to educational attainment of the respondents presented in Table 3,provide some interesting figures. Majority of the respondents are in the high school level which is 38.3 percent, and only 8 or 13.3 percent are high school graduate. While most of teenagers who get pregnant are in the high school level, a few or 18.3 percent of the respondents make it to college. To paraphrase Albano (2010), the situation is grim for pregnant teenage girls who are in school and their babies. Forced with few options with nowhere to turn to, many girls find various ways to get rid of the fetus. Many lost interest at school, absenteeism from school resulting to low academic performance and finally prefers to stay home.

The lowest educational attainment of the respondents is elementary level representing 11.7 percent of the population. In the rural setting, this is a common scenario experienced by women among low income farming communities. Women are usually left at home to take care of the household chores while men go to the farm. After graduation from the elementary school, parents would prefer their daughters to stay at home. While at home male friends can have chances to court them thus resulting to teenage pregnancy due to less parent’s intervention influence from barkadas, and too much exposure to films and pornographic materials.

Table 4.  Distribution of the Respondents According to their Educational Status

Status Frequency Percent
Out-of-School Youth 46 76.7
Still Studying 14 23.3
Total 60 100.0

The distribution of respondents according to educational Status is presented in table 4. Out-of-School Youth represents the majority which is 46 or 76.7 percent of the total respondents. Only 23.3 percent are still studying. Since the community where the respondents are situated, is predominantly poor, these teenagers were not given access to high school and college education. With parents busy in their livelihood, children especially young girls are left at home. In the absence of “family intervention,” teenage girls usually are left with barkadas and vices resulting to indulging in sexual activities. Only 14 or 23.3 percent of the respondents are still studying. This simply means that they are still supported by their parents to go through college education. Based on the result of the researcher’s personal interview with the respondents, though parents are mad and angry at first upon knowing their untimely pregnancy, still they are willing to support their college education and also the child who will be left to their care while the respondents are pursuing their studies.

Table 5.  Distribution of the Respondents According to Type of School Attended

Type of School Attended Frequency Percent
Public 47 78.3
Private 13 21.7
Total 60 100.0

The data in table 5 show the distribution of the respondents according to type of school attended. A big majority of the respondents are products of public national high school. This represents 78.3 percent of the entire population. This would imply that in a predominantly farming communities, parents would prefer to enroll their children in public schools for obvious reasons that they do not pay tuition and school-related expenses is quite low. This is notable considering  that it is believed that students in public schools, because of their big number, are loose in terms of discipline no matter how hard the teachers try to impose discipline. Only 13 or 21.7 percent attend private.

Those enrolled in private schools are not also exempted in this predicament of untimely pregnancy. Though closely monitored by teachers and guidance counselors, cases of teenage pregnancies usually happen to students living in boarding houses.

Table 6. Distribution of the Respondents According to Monthly Income

Monthly Income Frequency Percent
Less than Php 5,000 26 43.3
Php 5,001 – Php 8,000 24 40.0
Php 8,001-Php15000 10 16.7
Total 60 100.0

The distribution of respondents according to monthly income of their parents are shown in Table 6. The data show only slight difference in number of respondents whose parents have monthly income between Php 5,000 to Php 8,000 or less which is 40 to 43.3 percent respectively. This indicates that the monthly income of families has a great impact on the childrens’ success or failure in school. The respondents of the study who belong to low income families are those prone to get pregnant at early age. The findings is consistent with the study of Cessane in 2010 that adolescents who live in communities with more social disorganization and fewer economic resources are more likely to engage in sex at an early age and become pregnant. Black 2003 added in his study that teenage child bearing is thought to be associated with a wide spectrum of psychological, social, moral and educational problems some of these are caused by population boom thus more mouths to feed among poor families Only 10 respondents or 16.7 percent are daughters of parents where income ranged from Php 8,000 to Php 15,000 per month. Considering the cost of living today and the cost of education, this income seems to be only in the subsistence level.

Problem 2. What are the causes of teenage pregnancy among the students and

out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

Table 7.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of Teenage Pregnancy

in Terms of Family Factor

FAMILY FACTOR MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.   Parents are not open about the use of contraceptives at home. 4.13 Agree
2.  The levels of educational attainment of parents in low and the income is not enough to support the family. 4.13 Agree
5.  Parents don’t talk about consequences of plan or unplanned indulgence of sex. 3.78 Agree
3.   Parents have permissive attitudes towards sex or premarital sex. 3.32 Moderately Agree
4.  Single kin relatives or members from the family likely to have unprotected sex and become pregnant. 3.12 Moderately Agree
6.   Computer and other electronic gadget are openly used at home. Making x-rated film available to young people. 3.07 Moderately Agree
8.  Kin relatives or members of the family have different romantic partners that younger relatives emulate. 2.93 Moderately Agree
7.  Members of the family learned about sex from pornographic, playboy, television and internet. 2.88 Moderately Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 3.42 Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00 Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Shown in Table 7 is the perception of the respondents on the causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of Family Factors. The indicators with equal mean of 4.13 with a description of “Agree” are “Parents with income not enough to support the family”. Equally agreeable to the respondents is the indicator ”Parents don’t  talk about the consequences of planned or unplanned indulgence of sex with a mean of 3.78. Their agreement of the first three indicators shows that predominant among Filipino families is not open to discuss among children issues about sex, contraceptives and the consequences of premarital sex. In the press release on reproductive Health 2012, points at families as the first access on Sex Education of children but inspite of massive campaign of the Philippines, government, Filipino families remain hesitant to open up sex education to their children.Indeed schools find it hard to teach sex education in the classrooms because of our deeply rooted beliefs and values that sex is sacred and should only be discussed among adults. The result is that young people learn about sex from x-rated films, pornographic materials and from friends and peers.All the rest of the indicators were described as “moderately agree” notable of which are “Friends and peers usually read pornographic materials when they are together” and “Indulging in relationship with opposite sex is encouraged by peers”. These contentions are supported by the study of Wertheimer, (2000) and Kirby (2001) whose perceptions of normative sexual attitude and behavior is closely associated to the teen’s own attitude and behavior. Further, they said that when teens believe correctly or not that their peers are having sex. When teenagers support the use of contraceptive, they are more likely to use contraceptive.

Table 8.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of TeenagePregnancy in Terms of Friends and Peers Factor

FRIENDS AND PEERS FACTOR MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.   Parents work outside the home giving teenagers time to be alone most often. 3.7 Agree
2. Teenage couple usually indulge in sexual activities out of curiosity. 3.55 Agree
3.  Friends are likely to talk about freedom in indulging premarital sex. 3.35 Moderately Agree
4.   Friends and peers are likely to joke about still being a virgin. 3.34 Moderately Agree
5. There is common place where friends and peers hang-out together. 3.33 Moderately Agree
6.  Peers and friends are often permitted by parents to go out late at night. 3.14 Moderately Agree
7.   Drugs and intoxicating drinks are usually introduced during group gathering. 2.97 Moderately Agree
8.  Watching x-rated movies is a usual form of recreation among barkadas. 2.95 Moderately Agree
9.   Friends and peers usually read pornographic materials when they are together. 2.91 Moderately Agree
10.  Indulging in relationship with the opposite sex is encouraged by peers. 2.81 Moderately Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 3.21 Moderately Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

The perception of the respondents on the causes of teenage pregnancy in terms of friends and peers factor is presented in table 8. Respondents agreed on two major factors namely: “Parents work outside the home giving teenagers time to be alone most often” and “Teenage couple usually indulge in sexual activities out of curiosity, each received mean of 3.7 and 3.55 respectively. This finding could be generally accepted due to the fact that majority of parents in the Poblacion of Maramag and nearby barangays are farmers. Only few engaged in business, therefore, both parents have to work the whole day outside the home. Their teenage daughter are most often left at home. Most often, when young people are with their peers and barkadas, their favorite topic is about their relationship with the opposite sex. Other vices may also contribute to teenager’s indulging in sexual activities like intoxicating drinks and drugs. Lowest among the indicators are “Watching x-rated movies among barkadas is the usual form of recreation “ with a mean of 2.95; “Friends and peers usually read pornographic materials when they are together” with a mean of 2.91; and “Indulging in relationship with the opposite sex is encouraged by peers” with a mean of 2.81 which the respondents described as “moderately agree, but still in some instances are contributors to teenage pregnancy. This is affirmed in the study of Kaiser, Family Foundation (2011) that teens are most likely to learn about sex from TV shows, movies and magazines. A 2002 national survey also indicated that 15 to 17 years old adolescents believed that sexual content on TV and in music videos influenced the behavior of teenagers a lot. In addition, one-third of teens are reported to having conversation focused on sex due to scenes they saw on TV. Villanueva (2000) also studied in his research that it is difficult to document the effect of the media on behavior, he further added that it seems likely that, the content of television, movies and magazines in some ways shape the sexual beliefs, attitudes and behavior of adolescents.

Table 9.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Community Factor

COMMUNITY MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.  There are out-of-school teenagers in the community that are earning for a living. 4.18 Agree
2.  Pregnant unwed teenagers are often frowned by people in the community. 4.16 Agree
3.  Majority of families in the community have very low income and not enough to support the needs of the family. 4.15 Agree
4.   Mothers are usually out from home to help earn a living. 4.12 Agree
5.   There are cases of teenage pregnancy in the community. 4.08 Agree
6.  Elders would gossip about pregnant unwed teenagers. 3.86 Agree
7.  Community elders who gambles and drink are the usual people seen by teenagers everyday. 3.69 Agree
8.  Children are usually on their own at home because of absentee parents. 3.68 Agree
9.   Religiosity is not manifested among families in the community. 3.59 Agree
10. The community provides counseling to teenagers about healthy boy-girl relationship. 3.51 Agree
 

OVER ALL MEAN

3.90 Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Table 9 shows the perception of the respondents on the causes of Teenage pregnancy in terms of community factors. All the indicators elicited agreement among the respondents though they vary in the degree of importance. Highest mean among the indicators is “There are out-of-school teen-agers in the community that are earning for a living” with a mean of 4.18. Based on the result of the personal interview conducted by the researcher, the teenage unwed mother has to stop schooling and find ways and means to earn a living  for herself and for the baby. A very notable is indicator number two. “Pregnant unwed teenagers are often frowned in the community” with a mean of 4.15. Oftentimes, teenagers who get pregnant are disgruntled of the situation where they are in. They are not only frowned by people in the community, but also by the members of their own family especially the parents. The other two indicators have also a notable bearing on the study; one is “Community elders who gambles and drink are the usual people seen by teenagers everyday” with a mean of 3.69; and “Children are usually on their own at home because of absentee parents” with a mean of 3.68. The research conducted by Villanueva, (2000) and pursued by Kirby in (2001) saw that the participation of female in the labor force and the availability of family planning services in the community also shape the likelihood of first intercourse and subsequent sexual behavior among teenagers. They added that the presence of alcohol and drugs in the community might convince the teen-agers to do “ atry.”Indeed, the researcher is convinced based on the finding of the study and her personal interview with the respondents, that the community is a big factor in the teenage early pregnancy based on factors cited above.

Table 10.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of Teenage

Pregnancy in Terms of Church Involvement

CHURCH INVOLVEMENT MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.  Participating in church activities strengthen the values of the teenagers. 4.25 Strongly Agree
2.  The church promote the teaching of moral standards especially among the young. 4.15 Agree
3.  Less participation in church activities among teenagers 3.97 Agree
4.  Going to church irregularly. 3.85 Agree
5.  The church promotes the use of natural family planning method. 3.83 Agree
6.  Church elders lack support and advice to unwed pregnant teenagers. 3.83 Agree
7.  Unwed pregnant women usually prohibit themselves from attending church activities. 3.8 Agree
8.  Going to Church without commitments. 3.75 Agree
9.  Teenagers who get pregnant belong to families who are nominal church goers. 3.7 Agree
10.  Going to church is just to be with friends and peers. 3.56 Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 3.87 Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Presented in Table 10 are the perceptions of the respondents on the causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of church Involvement. The indicator that receive the highest mean is “Participating in church activities strengthen the value of the teen-agers.” This has the mean of 4.25 and described as “Strongly Agree.” Although it is true that the church, next to the family has great influence on the formation of moral values, teenagers now a days find it a taboo to join religious activities and become actively involved in the church. Cesanne (2010) in his study found out that teenagers, with “low level” of

Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Family Factor 3.42 Agree
Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Friends and Peers Factor 3.21 Moderately Agree
.  Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Community Factor 3.90 Agree
Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Church Involvement 3.87 Agree
Educational Development After Pregnancy 4.03 Agree

religiouscommitment” might pull the teenager to be pregnant for they will prioritized their relationship with the opposite sex rather than abiding to the moral teaching of the church. On the other hand, the same study shows that teenagers who are busy in the church usually listen to the advises and warning of parents. The respondents “ agree” to the rest of the indicators, thus, making them aware that if they only abide to the teachings of the church, they might have not experienced unexpected pregnancy. For example in the indicator that says “going to church irregularly which has a mean of 3.85, the respondents agree that they do not go to church regularly .

Summary Table of Problem 2

Table shows that perception of the respondents on the major causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of family factor, church involvement and community factor has a mean of not less than  3.41 but not also more than 4.20 which the respondents agree that family,  church involvement and community are among of the causes of teenage except for the “friends and peers “ which they only moderately agree of having a mean of 3.21.  This was explained because as we observed in both rural and urban areas,  Filipino children are usually attached to their family and next to family, is the community where they live in and the possible activities where they were exposed such as “church involvement”.   In here, they agreed that due to their practice and development in their respective family, communities  and how they being involved in church has great role why they become pregnant at teens.

Due to Pregnancy at teens,  majority of them has lost the opportunity to continue their studies as they agree which having a mean of 4.03.

Problem 3. Is there a significant difference on the Educational Development of Teenage pregnancy when grouped according to age, educational attainment, status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

Table 11. Educational Development of the Respondents After Pregnancy

EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AFTER PREGNANCY MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.  I am hurt when I hear people talk about me. 4.43 Strongly Agree
2.   I find it difficult to attend school due to my pregnancy. 4.41 Strongly Agree
3.  I experience very low self-esteem due to my pregnancy. 4.30 Strongly Agree
4.  I find it difficult to study because my attention is focused on the baby. 4.27 Strongly Agree
5.  My priority is to look for a part-time job to support my baby. 4.23 Strongly Agree
6.  I lost my desire to continue my studies. 4.17 Agree
7.  My sibling’s education is affected of what had happened to me. 4.03 Agree
8.  Rearing up a child is very demanding. 3.97 Agree
9.  It is hard for me to face the community because of my situation. 3.93 Agree
10.  I have great desire to finish a degree for the sake of my child. 3.90 Agree
11. My parent lack support and hinders my desire to continue schooling. 3.87 Agree
12.  There is very limited time for me to concentrate on my school work. 3.83 Agree
13.  My peers and friends lessen their communication with me. 3.69 Agree
14.  My plans for college education is still very strong in my heart. 3.67 Agree
15. My parents are hesitant to support my plans to go back to school. 3.66 Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 4.03 Agree

1.80  Strongly Disagree        2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Table11 presents the educational development of the Respondents after pregnancy. The indicator that receive the highest mean is “I am hurt when I hear people talk about me.” This has the mean of 4.43 and described as “Strongly Agree.” Followed with” I find it difficult to attend school due to my pregnancy” with a mean of 4.41 which the respondents has “Strongly Agree.” Thus, according to the latest available statistics, (Kost, Henshaw, & Carlin, 2010). When school aged students become mother, the new responsibilities can be overwhelming. For teenage mother who lack support from their own parents, this experience can be even more daunting as they seek support in adult-oriented systems which even older parents may find challenging.

The respondents agree that going back to school is already difficult after pregnancy as the indicator “My parents are hesitant to support my plans to go back to school having mean of 3.66. The overall mean indicates that respondents are having difficulties on pursuing their education considering that majority of them are came from low income family and less than Php 5,000 a month as stated in table 6.

Table shows that perception of the respondents on the causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of family factor, church involvement and community factor has a mean of not less than  3.41 but not also more than 4.20 which the respondents agree that family,  church involvement and community are among of the major causes of teenage except for the “friends and peers “ which they only moderately agree of having a mean of 3.21.  This was explained because as we observed in both rural and urban areas,  Filipino children are usually attached to their family and next to family, is the community where they live in and the possible activities where they were exposed such as “church involvement”.   In here, they agreed that due to their practice and development in their respective family, communities  and how they being involved in church has great role why they become pregnant at teens.

Due to Pregnancy at teens,  majority of them has lost the opportunity to continue their studies as they agree which having a mean of 4.03.

Table 12.  Analysis of Variance on the Educational Development of the

Respondents After Pregnancy when Classified According to Age

Age Mean Std. Deviation Maximum
16 years old and below 3.94 0.23 4.27
17 – 18 years old 4.23 0.39 4.73
19 – 20 years old 3.93 0.45 4.80
21 years old and above 3.60 0.38 4.07
Total 4.02 0.44 4.80
 

Source of Variation

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation
Between Groups 1.599 3 0.533 3.547 0.029 Significant
Within Groups 3.757 25 0.150
Total 5.356 28

When a girl falls pregnant, her life turns upside down. Through shame and stigma, bullying and harassment, she will be forced to withdraw from school. The girl will face the same challenges after giving birth to her child and wonders how  she will take care for her child. If she does make it back to school, she finds it difficult due to the time and learning she has missed. Consequently, she probably withdraws from school and will fail to reach her academic potential. One of the aims of this study is to look for the educational development of the teenagers who undergone pregnancy across the different age brackets. As shown in the Table, teenagers aged 16 years old and below, 19-20 years old, and 21 years old and above agree that there pregnancy brought negative effect in their educational development such as low of self-esteem, ashamed in facing the community after what had happened, lost the desire to continue their studies, parents’ lack of support, etc. However, the teenagers aged 17-18 years old seemed to have greater effect as revealed by the highest mean response of 4.23. This result coincides with the result of the analysis of variance that the responses of the teenagers who got pregnant are significantly different across the different age brackets since the computed F-value (3.547) is large and the p-value (0.029) is less than the level of significance.

Table 13.  Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test on the Educational Development of

the Respondents After Pregnancy when Classified According to Age

(I) Age (J) Age Mean Difference

(I-J)

Std. Error p-value
16 years old and below 17 – 18 years old -0.30 0.22 0.54
19 – 20 years old 0.01 0.25 1.00
21 years old and above 0.34 0.26 0.58
17 – 18 years old 16 years old and below 0.30 0.22 0.54
19 – 20 years old 0.31 0.19 0.38
21 years old and above 0.63* 0.20 0.02
19 – 20 years old 16 years old and below -0.01 0.25 1.00
17 – 18 years old -0.31 0.19 0.38
21 years old and above 0.33 0.23 0.52
21 years old and above 16 years old and below -0.34 0.26 0.58
17 – 18 years old -0.63* 0.20 0.02
19 – 20 years old -0.33 0.23 0.52

As to the multiple comparison test on the differences of the educational development of the respondents, Turkey’s Test points out which of the age brackets are significantly different from each other. As shown, teenagers aged 16 years old and below have the same educational development with the rest of aged brackets since the computed mean difference on their responses are very small to reject the null hypothesis and the computed p-values are greater than the level of significance. Similarly, teenagers aged 19 – 20 years old obtained the same result. However, teenagers aged 17-18 years old and 21 years old andabove revealed to have significant difference to each other as indicated by a mean difference of 0.63 and a p-value of 0.02.

Table 14.  Analysis of Variance on the Educational Development of Respondents

After Pregnancy when Classified According to their Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment Mean Std. Deviation Maximum
Elementary level 4.27 0.38 4.73
Elementary Graduate 3.40 0.38 3.67
High School Level 4.01 0.41 4.80
High School Graduate 3.95 0.49 4.53
College Level 4.04 0.42 4.50
Total 4.02 0.44 4.80
Source of Variation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation
Between Groups 1.18 4 0.29 1.69 0.19 Not Significant
Within Groups 4.18 24 0.17
Total 5.36 28

Becoming a parent, at any age, can be a life-altering experience. Regardless of race, education, and socio-economic status, motherhood—and fatherhood—uniformly places demands on one’s life that was non-existent prior to the birth of a child. When school-aged students become parents, the new responsibilities can be overwhelming. For teenage parents who lack support from their own parents, this experience can be even more daunting as they seek support in adult-oriented systems, which even older parents may find challenging.

Teenage parents—or students with children are parents between the ages of 13 and 19. Often these students drop out of school because of the pressures they experience, including stigmatization associated with early parenting, isolation from peers, and lack of needed support from family, friends, schools, social service agencies, and other organizations (Stephens, et. al, 2003). The analysis of variance educational development of the teenagers who got pregnant classified according to educational attainment is presented in the Table 14. The purpose of this analysis is to look if a significant difference exists on the desire of the respondents in pursuing again their studies across their different educational level. Descriptive statistics, such as the individual mean responses, standard deviations, and maximum values, are presented in the Table to describe the nature and variation of the responses each group. Furthermore, the F-value of the analysis of variance is also presented which is found to be 1.69. This value is not enough to reject the null hypothesis since its corresponding p-value (0.19) is greater than the level of significance. This means that the desires of the respondents to pursue again their studies are the same across their different level of educational attainment. In other words, the educational level of the teenagers when they got pregnant has nothing to do with their development or desire to pursue their studies.

Table 15.   Two-Sample Independent T-test Analysis on the Educational

Development of the Respondents when Classified According to Educational

Status and Type of School Attended

Educational Status Mean t-value p-value Interpretation
Out-of-School Youth 3.96 -0.963 0.352 Not Significant
Still Studying 4.14
Type of School Attended Mean t-value p-value Interpretation
Private 3.94 -2.08 0.047 Significant
Public 4.33

The two–sample independent t-test on the educational development of the respondents when classified according to their educational status, and type of school attended is presented in Table 15. The respondents who got pregnant in their teenage years are grouped to either out-of-school youth or still studying. It shows that their desires to pursue education or their educational development are not significantly different as suggested by a t-value of -0.963 and a p-value of 0.352.  This means that those out-of-school youth and still studying who got pregnant both agree that they lost their desire to continue their studies due to lack of support of their family, experiencing very low self-esteem, the child is the priority than to continue studying, etc. However, respondents who attended in private and public schools revealed to have significant different responses on their educational development since the computed t-value is -2.08 and its corresponding p-value (0.047) is less than the level of significance.  The negative sign of the t-value indicates that the mean response of those in private schools is significantly higher as compared to those enrolled in public schools. This means that those teenagers who are enrolled in public school are losing more desire to pursue their studies, after getting pregnant, as compared to those enrolled in private schools.

Table 16.  Analysis of Variance on the Educational Development of the

Respondents When Classified According to Economic Background

Monthly Income Mean Std. Deviation Maximum
Less than Php 5,000 3.95 0.45 4.80
Php 5,001 – Php 8,000 4.10 0.45 4.73
Php 8,001-Php15000 4.06 0.42 4.53
Total 4.02 0.44 4.80
Source of Variation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation
Between Groups 0.136 2 0.07 0.34 0.72 Not Significant
Within Groups 5.220 26 0.20
Total 5.356 28

The analysis of variance on the educational development of the respondents when classified to monthly income is presented in Table 16. As shown, the individual mean responses of the respondents across the different monthly income are close to each other ranging from 3.95 to 4.10. It is also shown that they have almost the same dispersion as indicated by the computed standard deviations of each group. This coincides with the mean square deviation between the groups which is found to be 0.07. This is the variation of the mean responses of every monthly income bracket which is very small. Similarly, the variation of responses within groups is also small which is revealed to be 0.20. Finally, the ratio of these two variations is 0.34 which is known to be the F-value. This value would lead us to the decision of rejecting or accepting the null hypothesis. Bigger value is in favor of the rejection; in this case, the value of 0.34 indicates not significant result since it obtained a p-value of 0.72 which is greater than the level of significance. This means that the educational development or the desires of the respondents to continue their studies after giving birth are the same regardless of their monthly earnings.

Problem 4. Which among the major causes of teenage pregnancy effects most to

students and out-of-school youth in Maramag , Bukidnon.

Table 17.  Independent Variables Included in the Regression Model

Model Variables Beta Coefficient Std. Error t p-value
1 (Constant) 1.115 .0.225 4.94 .000
Friends and Peers 0.345 .073 4.71 .000
2 (Constant) 1.344 0.361 3.723 .001
Friends and Peers 0.310 0.041 7.558 .000
Family 0.213 0.061 3.491 .025
                     R = 0.482                               Adj. R2 = 0.232                        Std. Error of Estimate = 0.334

Table 17 shows the regression analysis on the educational development of the respondents after pregnancy with 4 causes of teenage pregnancy as independent variables. It uses stepwise method in selecting the best predictors of the regression model wherein in takes 2 iterations to get into the final results. The first iteration of the regression analysis entered the friends and peers as significant variable with a beta coefficient of 0.345 and a t-value of 4.71. Further, family has entered in the second iteration and obtained a beta coefficient of 0.213 and a t-value of 3.491 which results to the rejection of the null hypothesis. This result m where Y is the respondents educational development, x1 is the friends and peers factor, and x2 is the family factor.

Moreover, the relationship between the obtained significant predictors and the independent variable is explained by the value of R = 0.482 which suggests a moderate correlation. The adjusted R-squared is also computed together with the standard error of estimate. The R-squared shows the proportion of variation in the dependent variable that can be explained by a linear relationship with the significant predictors while the standard error of estimate (S) is the numerical value that measures the accuracy of the obtained regression model. In this case, the R-squared = 0.232 means that 23.2% of the variation of the dependent variable is explained by a linear relationship with the peer and family factors. The S = 0.334, on the other hand, explains that the error of prediction on the dependent variable is about ± 0.334.

Click this to view the Complete continuation of Chapter 4.

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Foreign Sudies

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Foreign Sudies

THE EFFECTS OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR TO THE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF GRADE IV & V PUPILS IN CABANGLASAN DISTRICT

Click here to guide you by Chapters – CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

IntroductionConceptual FrameworkSchematic DiagramStatement of the Problem; Null HypothesisSignificance of the StudyScope & Delimitation;

CHAPTER II – Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study. The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background; insight and to supplement the ideas in the present investigation.

Foreign Studies

Range of Violent Behavior; Scott S; Knapp M; Henderson J;  Maughan B: Financial cost of social exclusion: follow up study of antisocial children into  adulthood.  BMJ   2010; Disruptive behavior were in the form of overt inattentiveness, misbehavior, tardiness and laziness at school.  There are also children and adolescents that had a wide range of behaviors: explosive temper tantrums, physical aggression, sleeping, reading of papers or any magazines or books not related to the subject matters that was taken on that specific time.

The above mentioned outward expressions of children having disruptive behavior are related to the present study because children who have this kind of character shown at school will disrupt not only the teachers but also the doer themselves and all the individual present in the room.

Mental Health Association America, 2005 NMHA is a national organization dedicated promoting mental health through education and advocacy. What can be done if a child shows disruptive behavior?

The goals of treatment typically focus on helping the child to: learn how to control his/her anger; express anger and frustrations in appropriate ways; be responsible for his/her actions; and accept consequences. In addition, family conflicts, school problems, and community issues must be addressed.

Barton, P.E.2009, reported from his study that each child arrives in the world with a particular profile of temperamental traits, for example, getting excited quickly compared with being really laid back , being very active and restless compared with being placid and relaxed, and seeking out stimulation compared with shrinking from stimulation. Different temperamental traits drive different kinds of behavior. For example a child who is easily excitable may have more temper outbursts than a child who is very placid.

Kim-Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton R: What are the “warning signs” for violent behavior in children?Kim Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton  R:  Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort.  Arch Gen Psychiatry   2005;

Children who have several risk factors  showed  the following behaviors should be carefully evaluated: intense anger, frequent loss of temper or blow-ups, extreme irritability, extreme impulsiveness, becoming easily frustrated.   Parents, teachers and institutions dealing with children such as school administrators will go hand in hand to understand and find ways to minimize such behavior.

Evidenced-based parent programs for reducing disruptive behavior in Children; Author: Ph.D. Candidate Gavita Oanalex, 2010 – The study is related to the study because it relates the cause and effect of disruptive behavior and it stressed that poor parenting practices are related to disruptive behaviors, while positive parenting practices are protective factors. Indeed, parents who engaged in more negative parenting practices, such as the use of harsh and inconsistent discipline, often report higher externalizing and internalizing problems in both children and adolescents.

(Burke et al., 2006; and Frick, 1994) has a study that children’s disruptive behavior has been linked with different aspects of parenting practices, such as monitoring, harassing and inconsistent discipline, etc. Wasserman et al., 2002, found out that punitive discipline of parents has been found to be a common risk factor for children with oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive, and internalizing behaviors.

           (Burke et al., 2002),has a study that physically aggressive punishment seems to be linked to child aggression, while low parental warmth/involvement was associated to oppositional child behavior.

Review of Related Literature and Studies in Chapter 2, click below:

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Foreign Studies

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Gender & Parents Intervention

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Overt Inattentive

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Tardiness and Laziness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Misbehavior

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) – Aggressiveness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) –Economic Background & Justification