Chapter IV of thesis entitled TEENAGE PREGNANCY

Click Teenage Pregnancy  Questionnaire for Survey

Chapter IChapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

CHAPTER 4

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This  chapter  presents the findings, analysis and interpretation of data gathered . Presentation of data follows the sequence  in the statement of problem found in the study.

Problem 1. What is the demographic profile in terms of age, age when pregnant, educational, educational attainment, status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

Table 1. General Profile of the Respondents

Barangay No. of Respondents Percent
Anahawon 9 15
Base Camp 12 20
Dagumbaan 10 17
North 13 22
South 16 27
Total 60 100

The table shows that majority of the respondents were came from Barangay South Poblacion (16 out of 60 or 27%).  This may be because Barangay South Poblacion is the most thickly populated compared to some other barangays.  Aside from that, Barangay South Poblacion is a fast growing place when it comes to economic or it is highly urbanized all throughout  the barangays of Maramag. Due to this reasons teenagers both females and males especially out of school youth rushing in for earning a living as sales clerk, house helpers, baby care takers, gasoline boys, weight clifters “kargadors” and some others.  During their tour of duties they met and become lovers while their employers usually were busy on their business or job, leaving them alone at home were the usual trend between employees and employers,  which made their boyfriends having the chance to indulge early sex out of the absence of their employers.

Considering that Barangay South Poblacion is highly urbanized, parents earning a living usually busy and cannot monitor anymore the  where about  of their daughters doing things like viewing “ for adults only” on TV shows and going with peers anywhere else.

Barangay Anahawon has the least respondents, knowing that this barangay has the smallest population and a  little bet far from atmosphere that is commonly found in urban areas.   Parents here were still conservatives when it comes to teenagers whereabouts.

Table 2.  Distribution of the Respondents According to Age

Age Frequency Percent
16 years old and below 17 28.3
17 – 18 years old 23 38.3
19 – 20 years old 14 23.3
21 years old and above 6 10.0
Total 60 100.0

The general profile of the respondents includes their age, educational attainment, educational status, type of school attended, and monthly income. Table 2 shows that a large majority of the respondents are between ages 17 to 18 years old. This comprises 38.3 percent of the total respondents. This is followed by 16 years old and below which is 28.3 percent. By contrast, only 6 or 10 percent  are 21years old and above. The result is quite alarming since the findings showed that many of the respondents are still in their prime age and for those respondents who became pregnant while still in school, this would mean that they are just beginning to enjoy and experience their teenage life. Based on the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (2002),teenage pregnancy brings about life – changing outcomes and commitments. Thus their studies and ambitions will most likely be hampered as they will concentrate their attention to their new situation in life-taking care of the babies.

Table 3.  Distribution of the Respondents According to Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment Frequency Percent
Elementary level 7 11.7
Elementary Graduate 11 18.3
High School Level 23 38.3
High School Graduate 8 13.3
College Level 11 18.3
Total 60 100.0

Data according to educational attainment of the respondents presented in Table 3,provide some interesting figures. Majority of the respondents are in the high school level which is 38.3 percent, and only 8 or 13.3 percent are high school graduate. While most of teenagers who get pregnant are in the high school level, a few or 18.3 percent of the respondents make it to college. To paraphrase Albano (2010), the situation is grim for pregnant teenage girls who are in school and their babies. Forced with few options with nowhere to turn to, many girls find various ways to get rid of the fetus. Many lost interest at school, absenteeism from school resulting to low academic performance and finally prefers to stay home.

The lowest educational attainment of the respondents is elementary level representing 11.7 percent of the population. In the rural setting, this is a common scenario experienced by women among low income farming communities. Women are usually left at home to take care of the household chores while men go to the farm. After graduation from the elementary school, parents would prefer their daughters to stay at home. While at home male friends can have chances to court them thus resulting to teenage pregnancy due to less parent’s intervention influence from barkadas, and too much exposure to films and pornographic materials.

Table 4.  Distribution of the Respondents According to their Educational Status

Status Frequency Percent
Out-of-School Youth 46 76.7
Still Studying 14 23.3
Total 60 100.0

The distribution of respondents according to educational Status is presented in table 4. Out-of-School Youth represents the majority which is 46 or 76.7 percent of the total respondents. Only 23.3 percent are still studying. Since the community where the respondents are situated, is predominantly poor, these teenagers were not given access to high school and college education. With parents busy in their livelihood, children especially young girls are left at home. In the absence of “family intervention,” teenage girls usually are left with barkadas and vices resulting to indulging in sexual activities. Only 14 or 23.3 percent of the respondents are still studying. This simply means that they are still supported by their parents to go through college education. Based on the result of the researcher’s personal interview with the respondents, though parents are mad and angry at first upon knowing their untimely pregnancy, still they are willing to support their college education and also the child who will be left to their care while the respondents are pursuing their studies.

Table 5.  Distribution of the Respondents According to Type of School Attended

Type of School Attended Frequency Percent
Public 47 78.3
Private 13 21.7
Total 60 100.0

The data in table 5 show the distribution of the respondents according to type of school attended. A big majority of the respondents are products of public national high school. This represents 78.3 percent of the entire population. This would imply that in a predominantly farming communities, parents would prefer to enroll their children in public schools for obvious reasons that they do not pay tuition and school-related expenses is quite low. This is notable considering  that it is believed that students in public schools, because of their big number, are loose in terms of discipline no matter how hard the teachers try to impose discipline. Only 13 or 21.7 percent attend private.

Those enrolled in private schools are not also exempted in this predicament of untimely pregnancy. Though closely monitored by teachers and guidance counselors, cases of teenage pregnancies usually happen to students living in boarding houses.

Table 6. Distribution of the Respondents According to Monthly Income

Monthly Income Frequency Percent
Less than Php 5,000 26 43.3
Php 5,001 – Php 8,000 24 40.0
Php 8,001-Php15000 10 16.7
Total 60 100.0

The distribution of respondents according to monthly income of their parents are shown in Table 6. The data show only slight difference in number of respondents whose parents have monthly income between Php 5,000 to Php 8,000 or less which is 40 to 43.3 percent respectively. This indicates that the monthly income of families has a great impact on the childrens’ success or failure in school. The respondents of the study who belong to low income families are those prone to get pregnant at early age. The findings is consistent with the study of Cessane in 2010 that adolescents who live in communities with more social disorganization and fewer economic resources are more likely to engage in sex at an early age and become pregnant. Black 2003 added in his study that teenage child bearing is thought to be associated with a wide spectrum of psychological, social, moral and educational problems some of these are caused by population boom thus more mouths to feed among poor families Only 10 respondents or 16.7 percent are daughters of parents where income ranged from Php 8,000 to Php 15,000 per month. Considering the cost of living today and the cost of education, this income seems to be only in the subsistence level.

Problem 2. What are the causes of teenage pregnancy among the students and

out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

Table 7.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of Teenage Pregnancy

in Terms of Family Factor

FAMILY FACTOR MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.   Parents are not open about the use of contraceptives at home. 4.13 Agree
2.  The levels of educational attainment of parents in low and the income is not enough to support the family. 4.13 Agree
5.  Parents don’t talk about consequences of plan or unplanned indulgence of sex. 3.78 Agree
3.   Parents have permissive attitudes towards sex or premarital sex. 3.32 Moderately Agree
4.  Single kin relatives or members from the family likely to have unprotected sex and become pregnant. 3.12 Moderately Agree
6.   Computer and other electronic gadget are openly used at home. Making x-rated film available to young people. 3.07 Moderately Agree
8.  Kin relatives or members of the family have different romantic partners that younger relatives emulate. 2.93 Moderately Agree
7.  Members of the family learned about sex from pornographic, playboy, television and internet. 2.88 Moderately Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 3.42 Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00 Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Shown in Table 7 is the perception of the respondents on the causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of Family Factors. The indicators with equal mean of 4.13 with a description of “Agree” are “Parents with income not enough to support the family”. Equally agreeable to the respondents is the indicator ”Parents don’t  talk about the consequences of planned or unplanned indulgence of sex with a mean of 3.78. Their agreement of the first three indicators shows that predominant among Filipino families is not open to discuss among children issues about sex, contraceptives and the consequences of premarital sex. In the press release on reproductive Health 2012, points at families as the first access on Sex Education of children but inspite of massive campaign of the Philippines, government, Filipino families remain hesitant to open up sex education to their children.Indeed schools find it hard to teach sex education in the classrooms because of our deeply rooted beliefs and values that sex is sacred and should only be discussed among adults. The result is that young people learn about sex from x-rated films, pornographic materials and from friends and peers.All the rest of the indicators were described as “moderately agree” notable of which are “Friends and peers usually read pornographic materials when they are together” and “Indulging in relationship with opposite sex is encouraged by peers”. These contentions are supported by the study of Wertheimer, (2000) and Kirby (2001) whose perceptions of normative sexual attitude and behavior is closely associated to the teen’s own attitude and behavior. Further, they said that when teens believe correctly or not that their peers are having sex. When teenagers support the use of contraceptive, they are more likely to use contraceptive.

Table 8.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of TeenagePregnancy in Terms of Friends and Peers Factor

FRIENDS AND PEERS FACTOR MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.   Parents work outside the home giving teenagers time to be alone most often. 3.7 Agree
2. Teenage couple usually indulge in sexual activities out of curiosity. 3.55 Agree
3.  Friends are likely to talk about freedom in indulging premarital sex. 3.35 Moderately Agree
4.   Friends and peers are likely to joke about still being a virgin. 3.34 Moderately Agree
5. There is common place where friends and peers hang-out together. 3.33 Moderately Agree
6.  Peers and friends are often permitted by parents to go out late at night. 3.14 Moderately Agree
7.   Drugs and intoxicating drinks are usually introduced during group gathering. 2.97 Moderately Agree
8.  Watching x-rated movies is a usual form of recreation among barkadas. 2.95 Moderately Agree
9.   Friends and peers usually read pornographic materials when they are together. 2.91 Moderately Agree
10.  Indulging in relationship with the opposite sex is encouraged by peers. 2.81 Moderately Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 3.21 Moderately Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

The perception of the respondents on the causes of teenage pregnancy in terms of friends and peers factor is presented in table 8. Respondents agreed on two major factors namely: “Parents work outside the home giving teenagers time to be alone most often” and “Teenage couple usually indulge in sexual activities out of curiosity, each received mean of 3.7 and 3.55 respectively. This finding could be generally accepted due to the fact that majority of parents in the Poblacion of Maramag and nearby barangays are farmers. Only few engaged in business, therefore, both parents have to work the whole day outside the home. Their teenage daughter are most often left at home. Most often, when young people are with their peers and barkadas, their favorite topic is about their relationship with the opposite sex. Other vices may also contribute to teenager’s indulging in sexual activities like intoxicating drinks and drugs. Lowest among the indicators are “Watching x-rated movies among barkadas is the usual form of recreation “ with a mean of 2.95; “Friends and peers usually read pornographic materials when they are together” with a mean of 2.91; and “Indulging in relationship with the opposite sex is encouraged by peers” with a mean of 2.81 which the respondents described as “moderately agree, but still in some instances are contributors to teenage pregnancy. This is affirmed in the study of Kaiser, Family Foundation (2011) that teens are most likely to learn about sex from TV shows, movies and magazines. A 2002 national survey also indicated that 15 to 17 years old adolescents believed that sexual content on TV and in music videos influenced the behavior of teenagers a lot. In addition, one-third of teens are reported to having conversation focused on sex due to scenes they saw on TV. Villanueva (2000) also studied in his research that it is difficult to document the effect of the media on behavior, he further added that it seems likely that, the content of television, movies and magazines in some ways shape the sexual beliefs, attitudes and behavior of adolescents.

Table 9.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Community Factor

COMMUNITY MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.  There are out-of-school teenagers in the community that are earning for a living. 4.18 Agree
2.  Pregnant unwed teenagers are often frowned by people in the community. 4.16 Agree
3.  Majority of families in the community have very low income and not enough to support the needs of the family. 4.15 Agree
4.   Mothers are usually out from home to help earn a living. 4.12 Agree
5.   There are cases of teenage pregnancy in the community. 4.08 Agree
6.  Elders would gossip about pregnant unwed teenagers. 3.86 Agree
7.  Community elders who gambles and drink are the usual people seen by teenagers everyday. 3.69 Agree
8.  Children are usually on their own at home because of absentee parents. 3.68 Agree
9.   Religiosity is not manifested among families in the community. 3.59 Agree
10. The community provides counseling to teenagers about healthy boy-girl relationship. 3.51 Agree
 

OVER ALL MEAN

3.90 Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Table 9 shows the perception of the respondents on the causes of Teenage pregnancy in terms of community factors. All the indicators elicited agreement among the respondents though they vary in the degree of importance. Highest mean among the indicators is “There are out-of-school teen-agers in the community that are earning for a living” with a mean of 4.18. Based on the result of the personal interview conducted by the researcher, the teenage unwed mother has to stop schooling and find ways and means to earn a living  for herself and for the baby. A very notable is indicator number two. “Pregnant unwed teenagers are often frowned in the community” with a mean of 4.15. Oftentimes, teenagers who get pregnant are disgruntled of the situation where they are in. They are not only frowned by people in the community, but also by the members of their own family especially the parents. The other two indicators have also a notable bearing on the study; one is “Community elders who gambles and drink are the usual people seen by teenagers everyday” with a mean of 3.69; and “Children are usually on their own at home because of absentee parents” with a mean of 3.68. The research conducted by Villanueva, (2000) and pursued by Kirby in (2001) saw that the participation of female in the labor force and the availability of family planning services in the community also shape the likelihood of first intercourse and subsequent sexual behavior among teenagers. They added that the presence of alcohol and drugs in the community might convince the teen-agers to do “ atry.”Indeed, the researcher is convinced based on the finding of the study and her personal interview with the respondents, that the community is a big factor in the teenage early pregnancy based on factors cited above.

Table 10.  Perception of the Respondents on the Causes of Teenage

Pregnancy in Terms of Church Involvement

CHURCH INVOLVEMENT MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.  Participating in church activities strengthen the values of the teenagers. 4.25 Strongly Agree
2.  The church promote the teaching of moral standards especially among the young. 4.15 Agree
3.  Less participation in church activities among teenagers 3.97 Agree
4.  Going to church irregularly. 3.85 Agree
5.  The church promotes the use of natural family planning method. 3.83 Agree
6.  Church elders lack support and advice to unwed pregnant teenagers. 3.83 Agree
7.  Unwed pregnant women usually prohibit themselves from attending church activities. 3.8 Agree
8.  Going to Church without commitments. 3.75 Agree
9.  Teenagers who get pregnant belong to families who are nominal church goers. 3.7 Agree
10.  Going to church is just to be with friends and peers. 3.56 Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 3.87 Agree

1.00 – 1.80  Strongly Disagree             2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Presented in Table 10 are the perceptions of the respondents on the causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of church Involvement. The indicator that receive the highest mean is “Participating in church activities strengthen the value of the teen-agers.” This has the mean of 4.25 and described as “Strongly Agree.” Although it is true that the church, next to the family has great influence on the formation of moral values, teenagers now a days find it a taboo to join religious activities and become actively involved in the church. Cesanne (2010) in his study found out that teenagers, with “low level” of

Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Family Factor 3.42 Agree
Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Friends and Peers Factor 3.21 Moderately Agree
.  Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Community Factor 3.90 Agree
Perception of the Respondents on the Major Causes of Teenage Pregnancy in Terms of Church Involvement 3.87 Agree
Educational Development After Pregnancy 4.03 Agree

religiouscommitment” might pull the teenager to be pregnant for they will prioritized their relationship with the opposite sex rather than abiding to the moral teaching of the church. On the other hand, the same study shows that teenagers who are busy in the church usually listen to the advises and warning of parents. The respondents “ agree” to the rest of the indicators, thus, making them aware that if they only abide to the teachings of the church, they might have not experienced unexpected pregnancy. For example in the indicator that says “going to church irregularly which has a mean of 3.85, the respondents agree that they do not go to church regularly .

Summary Table of Problem 2

Table shows that perception of the respondents on the major causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of family factor, church involvement and community factor has a mean of not less than  3.41 but not also more than 4.20 which the respondents agree that family,  church involvement and community are among of the causes of teenage except for the “friends and peers “ which they only moderately agree of having a mean of 3.21.  This was explained because as we observed in both rural and urban areas,  Filipino children are usually attached to their family and next to family, is the community where they live in and the possible activities where they were exposed such as “church involvement”.   In here, they agreed that due to their practice and development in their respective family, communities  and how they being involved in church has great role why they become pregnant at teens.

Due to Pregnancy at teens,  majority of them has lost the opportunity to continue their studies as they agree which having a mean of 4.03.

Problem 3. Is there a significant difference on the Educational Development of Teenage pregnancy when grouped according to age, educational attainment, status, type of school attended and economic background of the respondents.

Table 11. Educational Development of the Respondents After Pregnancy

EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AFTER PREGNANCY MEAN DESCRIPTIVE
1.  I am hurt when I hear people talk about me. 4.43 Strongly Agree
2.   I find it difficult to attend school due to my pregnancy. 4.41 Strongly Agree
3.  I experience very low self-esteem due to my pregnancy. 4.30 Strongly Agree
4.  I find it difficult to study because my attention is focused on the baby. 4.27 Strongly Agree
5.  My priority is to look for a part-time job to support my baby. 4.23 Strongly Agree
6.  I lost my desire to continue my studies. 4.17 Agree
7.  My sibling’s education is affected of what had happened to me. 4.03 Agree
8.  Rearing up a child is very demanding. 3.97 Agree
9.  It is hard for me to face the community because of my situation. 3.93 Agree
10.  I have great desire to finish a degree for the sake of my child. 3.90 Agree
11. My parent lack support and hinders my desire to continue schooling. 3.87 Agree
12.  There is very limited time for me to concentrate on my school work. 3.83 Agree
13.  My peers and friends lessen their communication with me. 3.69 Agree
14.  My plans for college education is still very strong in my heart. 3.67 Agree
15. My parents are hesitant to support my plans to go back to school. 3.66 Agree
OVER ALL MEAN 4.03 Agree

1.80  Strongly Disagree        2.61 – 3.40  Moderately Agree              4.21 – 5.00  Strongly Agree

1.81 – 2.60   Disagree                            3.41 – 4.20  Agree

Table11 presents the educational development of the Respondents after pregnancy. The indicator that receive the highest mean is “I am hurt when I hear people talk about me.” This has the mean of 4.43 and described as “Strongly Agree.” Followed with” I find it difficult to attend school due to my pregnancy” with a mean of 4.41 which the respondents has “Strongly Agree.” Thus, according to the latest available statistics, (Kost, Henshaw, & Carlin, 2010). When school aged students become mother, the new responsibilities can be overwhelming. For teenage mother who lack support from their own parents, this experience can be even more daunting as they seek support in adult-oriented systems which even older parents may find challenging.

The respondents agree that going back to school is already difficult after pregnancy as the indicator “My parents are hesitant to support my plans to go back to school having mean of 3.66. The overall mean indicates that respondents are having difficulties on pursuing their education considering that majority of them are came from low income family and less than Php 5,000 a month as stated in table 6.

Table shows that perception of the respondents on the causes of Teenage Pregnancy in terms of family factor, church involvement and community factor has a mean of not less than  3.41 but not also more than 4.20 which the respondents agree that family,  church involvement and community are among of the major causes of teenage except for the “friends and peers “ which they only moderately agree of having a mean of 3.21.  This was explained because as we observed in both rural and urban areas,  Filipino children are usually attached to their family and next to family, is the community where they live in and the possible activities where they were exposed such as “church involvement”.   In here, they agreed that due to their practice and development in their respective family, communities  and how they being involved in church has great role why they become pregnant at teens.

Due to Pregnancy at teens,  majority of them has lost the opportunity to continue their studies as they agree which having a mean of 4.03.

Table 12.  Analysis of Variance on the Educational Development of the

Respondents After Pregnancy when Classified According to Age

Age Mean Std. Deviation Maximum
16 years old and below 3.94 0.23 4.27
17 – 18 years old 4.23 0.39 4.73
19 – 20 years old 3.93 0.45 4.80
21 years old and above 3.60 0.38 4.07
Total 4.02 0.44 4.80
 

Source of Variation

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation
Between Groups 1.599 3 0.533 3.547 0.029 Significant
Within Groups 3.757 25 0.150
Total 5.356 28

When a girl falls pregnant, her life turns upside down. Through shame and stigma, bullying and harassment, she will be forced to withdraw from school. The girl will face the same challenges after giving birth to her child and wonders how  she will take care for her child. If she does make it back to school, she finds it difficult due to the time and learning she has missed. Consequently, she probably withdraws from school and will fail to reach her academic potential. One of the aims of this study is to look for the educational development of the teenagers who undergone pregnancy across the different age brackets. As shown in the Table, teenagers aged 16 years old and below, 19-20 years old, and 21 years old and above agree that there pregnancy brought negative effect in their educational development such as low of self-esteem, ashamed in facing the community after what had happened, lost the desire to continue their studies, parents’ lack of support, etc. However, the teenagers aged 17-18 years old seemed to have greater effect as revealed by the highest mean response of 4.23. This result coincides with the result of the analysis of variance that the responses of the teenagers who got pregnant are significantly different across the different age brackets since the computed F-value (3.547) is large and the p-value (0.029) is less than the level of significance.

Table 13.  Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test on the Educational Development of

the Respondents After Pregnancy when Classified According to Age

(I) Age (J) Age Mean Difference

(I-J)

Std. Error p-value
16 years old and below 17 – 18 years old -0.30 0.22 0.54
19 – 20 years old 0.01 0.25 1.00
21 years old and above 0.34 0.26 0.58
17 – 18 years old 16 years old and below 0.30 0.22 0.54
19 – 20 years old 0.31 0.19 0.38
21 years old and above 0.63* 0.20 0.02
19 – 20 years old 16 years old and below -0.01 0.25 1.00
17 – 18 years old -0.31 0.19 0.38
21 years old and above 0.33 0.23 0.52
21 years old and above 16 years old and below -0.34 0.26 0.58
17 – 18 years old -0.63* 0.20 0.02
19 – 20 years old -0.33 0.23 0.52

As to the multiple comparison test on the differences of the educational development of the respondents, Turkey’s Test points out which of the age brackets are significantly different from each other. As shown, teenagers aged 16 years old and below have the same educational development with the rest of aged brackets since the computed mean difference on their responses are very small to reject the null hypothesis and the computed p-values are greater than the level of significance. Similarly, teenagers aged 19 – 20 years old obtained the same result. However, teenagers aged 17-18 years old and 21 years old andabove revealed to have significant difference to each other as indicated by a mean difference of 0.63 and a p-value of 0.02.

Table 14.  Analysis of Variance on the Educational Development of Respondents

After Pregnancy when Classified According to their Educational Attainment

Educational Attainment Mean Std. Deviation Maximum
Elementary level 4.27 0.38 4.73
Elementary Graduate 3.40 0.38 3.67
High School Level 4.01 0.41 4.80
High School Graduate 3.95 0.49 4.53
College Level 4.04 0.42 4.50
Total 4.02 0.44 4.80
Source of Variation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation
Between Groups 1.18 4 0.29 1.69 0.19 Not Significant
Within Groups 4.18 24 0.17
Total 5.36 28

Becoming a parent, at any age, can be a life-altering experience. Regardless of race, education, and socio-economic status, motherhood—and fatherhood—uniformly places demands on one’s life that was non-existent prior to the birth of a child. When school-aged students become parents, the new responsibilities can be overwhelming. For teenage parents who lack support from their own parents, this experience can be even more daunting as they seek support in adult-oriented systems, which even older parents may find challenging.

Teenage parents—or students with children are parents between the ages of 13 and 19. Often these students drop out of school because of the pressures they experience, including stigmatization associated with early parenting, isolation from peers, and lack of needed support from family, friends, schools, social service agencies, and other organizations (Stephens, et. al, 2003). The analysis of variance educational development of the teenagers who got pregnant classified according to educational attainment is presented in the Table 14. The purpose of this analysis is to look if a significant difference exists on the desire of the respondents in pursuing again their studies across their different educational level. Descriptive statistics, such as the individual mean responses, standard deviations, and maximum values, are presented in the Table to describe the nature and variation of the responses each group. Furthermore, the F-value of the analysis of variance is also presented which is found to be 1.69. This value is not enough to reject the null hypothesis since its corresponding p-value (0.19) is greater than the level of significance. This means that the desires of the respondents to pursue again their studies are the same across their different level of educational attainment. In other words, the educational level of the teenagers when they got pregnant has nothing to do with their development or desire to pursue their studies.

Table 15.   Two-Sample Independent T-test Analysis on the Educational

Development of the Respondents when Classified According to Educational

Status and Type of School Attended

Educational Status Mean t-value p-value Interpretation
Out-of-School Youth 3.96 -0.963 0.352 Not Significant
Still Studying 4.14
Type of School Attended Mean t-value p-value Interpretation
Private 3.94 -2.08 0.047 Significant
Public 4.33

The two–sample independent t-test on the educational development of the respondents when classified according to their educational status, and type of school attended is presented in Table 15. The respondents who got pregnant in their teenage years are grouped to either out-of-school youth or still studying. It shows that their desires to pursue education or their educational development are not significantly different as suggested by a t-value of -0.963 and a p-value of 0.352.  This means that those out-of-school youth and still studying who got pregnant both agree that they lost their desire to continue their studies due to lack of support of their family, experiencing very low self-esteem, the child is the priority than to continue studying, etc. However, respondents who attended in private and public schools revealed to have significant different responses on their educational development since the computed t-value is -2.08 and its corresponding p-value (0.047) is less than the level of significance.  The negative sign of the t-value indicates that the mean response of those in private schools is significantly higher as compared to those enrolled in public schools. This means that those teenagers who are enrolled in public school are losing more desire to pursue their studies, after getting pregnant, as compared to those enrolled in private schools.

Table 16.  Analysis of Variance on the Educational Development of the

Respondents When Classified According to Economic Background

Monthly Income Mean Std. Deviation Maximum
Less than Php 5,000 3.95 0.45 4.80
Php 5,001 – Php 8,000 4.10 0.45 4.73
Php 8,001-Php15000 4.06 0.42 4.53
Total 4.02 0.44 4.80
Source of Variation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation
Between Groups 0.136 2 0.07 0.34 0.72 Not Significant
Within Groups 5.220 26 0.20
Total 5.356 28

The analysis of variance on the educational development of the respondents when classified to monthly income is presented in Table 16. As shown, the individual mean responses of the respondents across the different monthly income are close to each other ranging from 3.95 to 4.10. It is also shown that they have almost the same dispersion as indicated by the computed standard deviations of each group. This coincides with the mean square deviation between the groups which is found to be 0.07. This is the variation of the mean responses of every monthly income bracket which is very small. Similarly, the variation of responses within groups is also small which is revealed to be 0.20. Finally, the ratio of these two variations is 0.34 which is known to be the F-value. This value would lead us to the decision of rejecting or accepting the null hypothesis. Bigger value is in favor of the rejection; in this case, the value of 0.34 indicates not significant result since it obtained a p-value of 0.72 which is greater than the level of significance. This means that the educational development or the desires of the respondents to continue their studies after giving birth are the same regardless of their monthly earnings.

Problem 4. Which among the major causes of teenage pregnancy effects most to

students and out-of-school youth in Maramag , Bukidnon.

Table 17.  Independent Variables Included in the Regression Model

Model Variables Beta Coefficient Std. Error t p-value
1 (Constant) 1.115 .0.225 4.94 .000
Friends and Peers 0.345 .073 4.71 .000
2 (Constant) 1.344 0.361 3.723 .001
Friends and Peers 0.310 0.041 7.558 .000
Family 0.213 0.061 3.491 .025
                     R = 0.482                               Adj. R2 = 0.232                        Std. Error of Estimate = 0.334

Table 17 shows the regression analysis on the educational development of the respondents after pregnancy with 4 causes of teenage pregnancy as independent variables. It uses stepwise method in selecting the best predictors of the regression model wherein in takes 2 iterations to get into the final results. The first iteration of the regression analysis entered the friends and peers as significant variable with a beta coefficient of 0.345 and a t-value of 4.71. Further, family has entered in the second iteration and obtained a beta coefficient of 0.213 and a t-value of 3.491 which results to the rejection of the null hypothesis. This result m where Y is the respondents educational development, x1 is the friends and peers factor, and x2 is the family factor.

Moreover, the relationship between the obtained significant predictors and the independent variable is explained by the value of R = 0.482 which suggests a moderate correlation. The adjusted R-squared is also computed together with the standard error of estimate. The R-squared shows the proportion of variation in the dependent variable that can be explained by a linear relationship with the significant predictors while the standard error of estimate (S) is the numerical value that measures the accuracy of the obtained regression model. In this case, the R-squared = 0.232 means that 23.2% of the variation of the dependent variable is explained by a linear relationship with the peer and family factors. The S = 0.334, on the other hand, explains that the error of prediction on the dependent variable is about ± 0.334.

Click this to view the Complete continuation of Chapter 4.

Advertisements

CHAPTER IV on thesis entitled Disruptive Behavior of Kids / Children

CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

CHAPTER IV – Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This study aims to answer the following sub problems:

1.            What is the demographic profile of the Grade IV and V in Cabanglasan

District in terms of the following a) gender, b) age, c) educational attainment of the parents, d) no. Members in the family, e)family economic background f) number of children in the classroom

Table 1- Distribution of Respondents by Age

Frequency Percent
9 -10 16 37.20
11-up 27 62.80
Total 43 100

The distribution of respondents by age is summarized in Table 1.  The

respondents of this study were the Grade IV and Grade V pupils in Cabanglasan District and were chosen using purposive sampling.  Pupils who had met the criteria of having disruptive behaviour were qualified  and chosen as among of the respondents of this study.

Most of the respondents has an age of 11 years and above (27 out of 43 or 62.8%) This may be due to the fact that Cabanglasan District was such a rural place and people sending their children in school were financially unstable and they usually did not follow the age required by the Department of Education,  DEPED One of the main reason may be was that rural residents usually were log behind of one (1) or two (2) year/s sending their children in preschool due to the fact that their children were too young to travel by foot or by transportation from their  home to school due to distance.

Table 2Distribution of Respondents by Grade IV and Grade V

Frequency Percent
Grade Four 23 53.50
Grade Five 20 46.50
Total 43 100

Most of the respondents were coming from Grade IV pupils (23 out of 43 or 53.5%). This may be due to the fact that some of the pupils who were having  disruptive behavior usually have poor school performance that lead them lost interest and decided to stop schooling, and it was also presumed that some pupils in Grade IV were repeaters or returnees that made the Grade V pupils out numbered.

Table 3 Distribution of Respondents by Gender

Frequency Percent
Male 39 90.70
Female 4 9.30
Total 43 100

Table 3 shows that majority of the respondents were male pupils ( 39 out of 43 or 90.7% of the total respondents.   While there were only 4 female pupils or 9.3% of the total respondents.  This may be because in Filipino culture, disruptive behavior is not acceptable to the society.  The “aura” of being a ”Maria Clara” is still the model that Filipinos want  to see to women.  Filipino women were been trained by their mothers at home to be good housekeeper.   They were trained to move gracefully, to speak softly and or set properly.

Table 4 – Educational attainment of the father

Frequency Percent
Elementary 34 79.10
High School 7 16.30
College 2 4.70
Total 43 100

Table 4 presents the distribution of the respondents by educational attainment of the father.  It shows that most of the respondents’ fathers were elementary graduates/level (34 out of 43 or 79.1%).  Some were high school graduates (7 out of 43 or 16.3%) and the rest were college graduate (2 out of 43 or 4.7%).  It may be deduced that most of the parents are elementary graduates due to the fact that secondary education and the presence of different tertiary learning institution were situated only in Cabanglasan proper and some nearby towns and cities far from the town of Cabanglasan.  Considering that majority of the constituents in Cabanglasan District   were poor and to send them to school far from their home was far to reality for if parents were almost unable to support their children sending in the town of Cabanglasan, how much more to a place away from their town.

Table 5 -Educational attainment of the Mother

Frequency Percent
Elementary 27 62.80
High School 14 32.60
College 2 4.70
Total 43 100

The educational attainment of the respondents’ mothers, shows that

majority of them were elementary graduates which was ( 27 out of 43 or 62.8%).

It may be deduced that the respondents’ mothers have the same fate with their

father in relation to educational attainment.  It has been a culture among rural

populace that daughters were not necessary to attend high school with the

reason that women were destined only as “housekeeper” and they were not the

breadwinner of the family. Aside from that, daughters usually after graduation of elementary were left behind in the house to look for the younger siblings while the mothers were there together with the father doing farming on the field.

Table 6 Number of children in the family

Frequency Percent
1 1 2.30
2 -3 4 9.30
4-6 29 67.40
7- over 9 20.90
Total 43 100

Distribution of the respondents by number of children in the Family is summarized in the above table thus;

It can be gleaned that majority of the respondents came from 4 -6 number of children in the family (29 out of 43 or 67.40%). It can be deduced that children who belong to the large family, mothers couldn’t gave much attention to her children because of rearing the younger siblings. It can be considered too that attitudes of children usually affected and became disrupted when their basic needs were not met, when their mother can’t give well their love and affection among their children and some other reasons.

Table 7- Number of children in the class

Frequency Percent
20 – 40 27 62.80
41-50 13 30.20
51- up 3 7.00

Table 7 shows that most of the respondents has only 20-40 pupils in the class or  27 out of 43 or  62.80% of the total respondents. While there were only 3 or 7% which has 51-up pupils in the classroom. This implies that the number of pupils in the classroom does not affect the disruptive behaviour of the pupils.

Table 8Overall grades

Mean QD
Overall grades 78 Poor

Table 8 shows that majority of the respondents have an overall grades  of 78 as it was shown on its mean with a rating of poor. These may be deduced that respondents being identified by their teachers as children having disruptive behavior had their school performance affected with their behavior and made them having poor performance at school.

Table 9- Case that parent intervention is called

Frequency Percent
Yes 43 100

Table 9 shows that all of the respondents’ teachers has called for “parent intervention” of having a frequency of 43 out of 43 respondents or a 100% case.The teachers found that disruptive behavior of their pupils were already beyond their control and “parents intervention “  was the only  recourse to help those children.  It can be deduced that “parents intervention”  is very necessary for their child’s school performance. They must also intervene because the quality of the classroom instruction is also affected and all the pupils in the classroom will be deprived of the kind of education that they must have.

Table10Number of Times that Parent intervention is called

Frequency Percent
One 16 37.20
Two or more 27 62.80
Total 43 100

It was shown in Table 10 that parents intervention was called only once among the 16 out of 43 or 37.20% respondents. Majority of the respondents has  two (2) or more cases as (27 out of 43 or 62.80%).

Table 11 Economic Background

Frequency Percent
Poor or the Family is among the member of “Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program” 31 72.10
Average 12 27.90
Total 43 100

The table shows that majority of the respondents were poor and their families were recipients of “Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program” (4Ps).

2.            What is the extent of factors associated with Disruptive behavior among the Grade IV and V pupils?

Table 12Overt Inattentiveness

Statement Mean QD
1.    The pupil is usually observed glancing elsewhere while I am explaining.( 4.26 HDB
2.    The pupil can’t wait the recess time for him/ her to eat the snack. 4.02 DB
3.    The pupil is caught chewing bubble gums or sweets during class hours. 3.72 DB
4.    The pupil was   yawning or sleeping, which her/his classmates make jokes to wake her/him up 4.02 DB
5.    When this pupil is ask to read notebooks or books, he was not doing it, instead reading not relevant to the topic. 4.07 DB
6.    The pupil was caught operating electronic devices such as cellphones, Sports, PDA’S, MP3 player, Gameboys, laptops and etc. while the class is going on.( explain as lowest result) 2.26 LDB
7.   The pupil needs to call his/her attention now and then to listen my explanation..(explain the highest result) 4.26 HDB
8. The pupil always can’t answer instant questions after my explanations related to subject matters. 4.00 DB
Mean of Overt Inattentiveness 3.83 DB

Note:

Scale Range Interval Qualitative Description
5 4:21-5:00 Highly Disruptive Behavior (HDB)
4 3:41-4:20 Disruptive Behavior (DB)
3 2:61-3:40 Moderately Disruptive Behavior (MDB)
2 1:81-2:60 Less Disruptive Behavior (LDB)
1 1:00-1:80 Never Occurred (NO)

The overt inattentiveness of grade four and five pupils was summarized in Table 12. www.christchurchpsychology.co.nz 5/6/2003 Page 2 of 3 stressed that middle childhood such as primary pupils exhibited a disruptive behavior within normal range of inattentiveness such as may not persist very long with a task to do, such as reading an assigned book or homework, or a task that requires concentration, such as cleaning something. Children and adolescents may be easily distracted from tasks that they do not want to perform.

Behavior signaling an inattention problem: At times the child misses some instructions and explanations in school, begins a number of activities without completing them, has some difficulties completing games with other children or grownups, becomes distracted, and tends to give up easily. The child may not complete or succeed at new activities, has some social deficiency, and does not pick up subtle social cues from others.

Behavior signaling the possible presence of ADHD, predominantly inattentive type: The child has significant school and social problems, often shifts activities, does not complete tasks, is messy, and is careless about school work. The child may start tasks prematurely and without appropriate review as if he were not listening, has difficulty organizing tasks, dislikes activities that require close concentration, is easily distracted, and is often forgetful.

A child with a behavior disorder such as a learning disability, developmental delay or attention- problems may find it difficult to follow instructions, execute complex routines like getting dressed or wait for what they want.  Children who have a delay development can’t move and think as the way the normal children can do.  They were usually slow, acted late that makes them behind to the specific time required.

Elias, M.J., “Guidelines for Educators” 2004, said that a certain study showed  that all parents had experienced parenting their own children. In addition, knowledge about what can be expected from children at different developmental stages and knowledge about the principles of behavior change contribute strongly to parenting styles.  Two parents may have similar ideas about parenting or may be diametrically opposed in their beliefs and practices. Parenting styles may decrease, maintain or inadvertently increase disruptive behavior in children.  And he stressed in his article that many children with disruptive behavior meet criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or havoc morbid mood and anxiety disorders; they might also have language and/or learning disorders.  The common overt inattentiveness in school classroom exhibited by children is sleeping, reading the paper in class and keep doing things such as scrabbling their bags and etc. and not listening while the instructors are explaining.

Table 12 shows that the grade four and five pupils were having a highly disruptive behavior when their teachers were explaining, they keep glancing elsewhere ( X=4.26).  So it needs for their teachers to call their attention now and then to listen to their teachers’  explanation (X=4.26).  This can be deduced due to the fact that pupil was not interested to listen the lesson, instead the mind was preoccupied with lots of things.   While it shows also that the grade IV and V pupils were not fond  on operating electronic devices such as cellphones, Sports, PDA’S, MP3 player, Gameboys, laptops and etc. while the class is going on (X= 2.26),  that made less disruptive during classroom instruction.  This may be because in rural areas, operating devices similar to those cellphones and laptops were not common to pupils considering that majority of them came from poor families and can’t afford to provide such kind of devices.  The teacher observed that there was only a disruptive behavior when pupil was asked to read notebooks or books, the pupil not doing it, instead read irrelevant to the subject matters X=4.07.This is because the pupil has a predominantly inattentive type, the child has significant school and social problems, often shifts activities, does not complete tasks, is messy, and is careless about schoolwork. Disruptive behavior  was exhibited in the class every time the teacher stopped the pupil eating snacks while the class was going on and reminded to eat it during recess time (X=4.02). Another disruptive behavior was the teacher gave enough more effort to catch the attention of the pupil to be interested of the subject matters not to be sleepy/sleeping or be yawning during class instruction (X=4.02).  When the pupil was glancing anywhere, sleepy, eating, chewing gums and some other acts and not absorbing the lesson while the teacher   was explaining, usually the pupil could not answer instant questions after the teachers’ explanations(X=4.00) and that shows again a disruptive behavior.

((X=4.02)

Table 13 Aggressiveness

Statement Mean QD
1.   The pupil is often silent but when got irritated, he/she talks loud accusing his opponent. 4.19 DB
2.   The pupil is often talkative and when got irritated, talks loud and aggressive..(explain the highest result) 4.42 HDB
3.    The pupil was often threats to harm oneself or others when got angry  .(explain the highest result) 4.30 HDB
4.    The pupil assaults someone by grabbing the t-shirt or belongings of his opponent. 3.58 DB
5.    The pupil will throw stones or threat to throw stones to relive his emotions. 3.51 DB
6.    The pupil often used derogatory language or blaspheme words to his opponent. 4.02 DB
7.    Even the child is playing or just talking to her/his classmates, he/she uttered bad words. 4.09 DB
8.    The pupil is inconsiderate to his/her friends or to his classmates. 4.12 DB
9. The pupil can’t be pacified in spite of the effort exerted to calm her/him. 3.93 DB
4.02 DB

Note:

Scale Range Interval Qualitative Description
5 4:21-5:00 Highly Disruptive Behavior (HDB)
4 3:41-4:20 Disruptive Behavior (DB)
3 2:61-3:40 Moderately Disruptive Behavior (MDB)
2 1:81-2:60 Less Disruptive Behavior (LDB)
1 1:00-1:80 Never Occurred (NO)

The overt inattentiveness of grade four and five pupils was summarized in Table 13. Aggressive children worry their parents and teachers. They disrupt lessons in school and hurt, intimidate and frighten other children. They may be argumentative and verbally aggressive. Aggressive behavior children may also have difficulty controlling their temper and are easily upset and annoyed by others. They are often defiant and may appear angry and resentful.

Unless we intervene to help these children, they are at risk of developing serious behavior disorders like Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder. As their problems increase, their aggressive behaviors threaten the safety of other children. When the problems of aggressive behavior children escalate to this level, some are expelled or suspended from school. The protection of the other children and their teachers is the prime concern when this occurs. Other children exhibit aggressive behavior that are less extreme or problematic, but worrisome nonetheless. They may slap or poke other children or pinch them.

Some children throw small objects or bang and break things when they are angry and upset. Others have temper tantrums and kick or scream.

Some children are verbally aggressive. They call other children names, they threaten and tease them or they use emotional control to victimize and push other children around. They might ostracize them and spread rumors about them.

Regardless of the level of aggression, it is important to intervene early to help aggressive behavior children. Aggressive children need to learn how to controltheir behaviors and manage anger and conflict without resorting to aggression.

We need to teach them alternative ways to solve problems. Table 14 shows that  there was a high disruptive behavior among grade 4 and 5  pupils by often talking loud and acted very emotional especially when got irritated (X=4.42). They often threats to harm oneself or others especially when got angry (X=4.30).May be because there were underlying stresses and anxieties especially that these children were majority came from poor and large family as indicated in table 12 and table 6 respectively.May be because of poverty, the  child has limited experience with role models (e.g. peers, family members, TV. & computer games) who value and provide examples of non-aggressive behaviors. Instead it was common in Barangays of Districts of Cabanglasan to be observed that adults were drinking too much liquors and got drunk, talked loud, walking staggering  and if happened to meet someone or anyone along their way usually they threatened to do harm,even made moves to do harm and or made themselves harm each other. Children sometimes were running away from the drunk person who threat them, and there at the distant they were laughing and made jokes to the drunk man which was not a good example to children.

Table 14  Persistent Tardiness & Laziness

Statement Mean QD
1.    The pupil came to class late where everyone in the class will turn their heads for his/her entrance. 4.26 HDB
2.    The pupil usually did not make assignments at home. 4.51 HDB
3.    The pupil passed her/his assignments/projects late. 4.53 HDB
4.    The pupil will submit only her/his assignments when kept reminded or else never submit anymore. 4.42 HDB
5.    When I asked the pupil why not able to pass his/her assignments or projects, he/she just keep silent or answering me that he forgot or some other reasons. 4.60 HDB
6.   The pupil sometimes caught sleeping. 3.95 DB
7.   The pupil will ask permission to go home early or just leave early without asking permission. 3.95 DB
Mean of Persistent Tardiness & Laziness 4.32 HDB

Note:

Scale Range Interval Qualitative Description
5 4:21-5:00 Highly Disruptive Behavior (HDB)
4 3:41-4:20 Disruptive Behavior (DB)
3 2:61-3:40 Moderately Disruptive Behavior (MDB)
2 1:81-2:60 Less Disruptive Behavior (LDB)
1 1:00-1:80 Never Occurred (NO)

The persistent Tardiness and Laziness of grade four and five pupils were summarized in Table 14.  The social experience has a powerful impact on a child’s feelings about school and his ability to be academically successful. When a child continuously shows up late to class, other students are distracted.

Attention is drawn away from the teacher or assignment and toward the child who has just arrived. Over time, classmates may begin to criticize this child, affecting how he feels about himself in school. During adolescence, children are especially conscious of fitting in and being accepted by peers. If child is repeatedly tardy, may become a target or outcast over time, and negative peer interactions can hurt his ability to concentrate on learning. According to the Encyclopedia of Children’s Health, children with steady friendships throughoutthe school year enjoy school more, and children who can make new friends tend to perform better academically.

Low Achievement – “Perform Well”, a non profit policy research and educational organization, reports that frequent tardiness is associated with lower grades and lower scores on standardized tests. It is also linked to low graduation rates. In addition, students who are routinely late at the elementary and middle school levels are more likely to fail in high school — or even drop out. In many classrooms, particularly at the elementary level, morning routines are critical todaily lessons. Warm-up activities may introduce topics that will be learned later in the day, or review work offers students an opportunity to review previously learned skills.

Responsibility – Part of child’s education is learning to be responsible. The school

experience teaches children how to meet expectations. They learn to follow schedules, obey rules, complete assignments and keep track of their materials.

Learning responsibility in school is a precursor to functioning in the working world, as noted by William Kirby in his 2010 Dayton Daily News article “School Attendance Tied to Academic Success.” Attendance is one of the ways children show they can meet their obligations. In many cases, a child’s attendance depends on parents’ ability to help the child be on time. Parents can teach their kids organizational techniques that will help them get out of the house faster,such as packing their bags and laying out their clothes the night before school. But parents who drive their children must also remember to be punctual and responsible. After all, the primary model werethe parents to their children.

Self-Confidence – The child may feel that a failure in everything and that being lazy eliminates the risk of further failure. Primary Needs Being Revealed that causes the child of being Lazy were Hunger and escape of pain; such that in hunger, the physical needs of this child may be contributing to the problem. Hunger and thirst will probably worsen this child’s behavior. While escape in pain made the child lazy is a way to escape pain of family or school problems. Secondary Needs Being Revealed were gregariousness, status and power; in gregariousness made the child’s exclusion from social groups could be a reason for laziness, power – this child may feel that being lazy is a form of power over adults. The power need should be met through achievement and status by making the child feel that he or she is a worthwhile person in the eyes of peers and adults.

Table 14 shows that there has a highly disruptive behavior when thepupil was asked  why not able to pass his/her assignments or projects, the pupil usually keep silent or answering the teachers that he forgot or some other reasons (X=4.60). Here again,  there has a highly disruptive behaviour when the pupil has also passed the assignments or his projects it was then late (X=4.53). May be because the pupil was late of submitting for the fact that he did his assignmentsupon arriving at  school and lazy enough to make assignments at home (X=4.51) which made him again having a highly disrupted behaviour on submitting his assignments only when reminded and or never submit anymore (X=4.42). The overall mean of Persistent Tardiness and Laziness on pupils of grade 4 and 5 pupils were highly disrupted behavior (X=4.32) for the fact that all the grounds that a child would be become lazy and usually prone to tardiness were there present to child’s environment and existence.   This can be deduced for the fact that the educational attainments of parents were majority elementary graduates as shown in table 4 and 5.  Children couldn’t make their assignments at home for parents were unable to assist them because of limited knowledge especially to the new curriculum that being introduced by the Dep-Ed.  Aside from limited knowledge of parents, majority of the children were came from large family where their parents would be busy on earning a living to feed and to make both ends meet and the mothers too were busy rearing the younger siblings and no enough time for elder children.  They had no other time anymore for the assignments and extracurricular activities of children at school. The children that have highly disruptive behavior on Tardiness and Laziness has poor performance at school as it shows in table 8 which has an overall mean of 78 and having a “poor” rating.

Tabel 15 Misbehavior

Statement Mean QD
1.   The pupils talks while I am talking or instructing other pupil. 4.37 HDB
2.   The pupil raises questions or calls my attention which interfere my presentation. 3.81 DB
3.   The pupil often creates excessive noise with papers, books, bags, that often catches the attention of everybody. 4.16 DB
4.    During group activities, the pupil is participating but usually encountered arguments of his her group mates. 4.21 HDB
5.    The pupil borrowed things of her his classmates without asking proper permission. 4.00 DB
6.    The pupil is using is her/his classmates and misplaced or loss it. 3.88 DB
7.    The pupil ignores my direct and indirect instruction such as “Don’t drag your chairs please”, or “Please go out the room after the other”. 4.12 DB
8.    The pupil often his/her classmates are complaining about him. 4.33 HDB
9. When I requested the class to do something, he moves so quickly or abruptly that makes some in the class uncomfortable of his/her abrupt moves. 4.40 HDB
10.    When I asked the pupil with regards to his subject matters I have just explained he/ she just remain silent or answered me out of topic that made the class amused and or sometimes wonder. 4.33 HDB
11.    The pupil made jokes out of the silence just like during examinations when everyone was concentrating. 4.09 DB
12.   The pupil was doing the ringing of cellphones during class hours. 2.98 MDB
13.   The pupil put his bags or books on her chairs coupled with pressure to create sounds or uncontrollable noise. 3.98 DB
14.     The entrance of this pupil in the room usually the sites of his classmates due to the noise of his/her shoes and others. 3.84 DB
15.    When I leave the class for a while, I returned that she/he is there running around and or other acts that disturbed his/her classmates. 4.47 HDB
16.   When I give instruction, just like saying “Class, please keep quiet” the pupil answered back that made all his/her classmates laughed or wonder. 4.12 DB
17.  The pupil usually talks louder to be heard by everybody. 4.47 HDB
Mean of Misbehavior 4.09 DB

Note:

Scale Range Interval Qualitative Description
5 4:21-5:00 Highly Disruptive Behavior (HDB)
4 3:41-4:20 Disruptive Behavior (DB)
3 2:61-3:40 Moderately Disruptive Behavior (MDB)
2 1:81-2:60 Less Disruptive Behavior (LDB)
1 1:00-1:80 Never Occurred (NO)

Misbehaviorof children in Cabanglasan District causes disturbances in the classroom and makes it difficult for children to enjoy the educational process. Dr. Rudolf Dreikurs, an educator and psychiatrist, came up with a theory that claimed all students who misbehaved did so for self-serving purposes. There types of misbehaviour at school:

–       Seeking Attention

According to Dreikurs, 90 percent of all misbehavior is done to get attention. Being the center of attention is a common desire for students, some more than others. Acting out by making fun of others, swearing, talking out of turn or simply being uncooperative are a few ways students looking for more of the spotlight may misbehave.

–       Desire for Power

Some students who misbehave are expressing a desire for more control in the classroom, and acting inappropriately makes them feel powerful. These students are not content to go along with the general plan and make it known they want things their way. Signs of a power-seeking student include constant arguing and a refusal to follow basic rules intended for everyone.

–     Looking for Revenge

Some children lash out in the classroom as a response to hurt feelings they experience. By misbehaving, they feel they are getting back at those responsible, whether it involves the students, the teacher or both. Students who misbehave as a motive for revenge may enjoy acting cruelly or even violently towards others. Revenge seekers are likely to perform bullying acts, such as shoving and excessive teasing.

–     Lack of Self-Confidence

A general fear of failure occurs when a children feels he cannot possibly live up to any expectations. These students misbehave as a way to avoid participating in anything that may lead to failure. Although the child may seem completely confident with school-related activities outside of the classroom, he acts incapable of functioning in a learning environment.

–       Physiological Factors

Children who were misbehaving may have some kind of temporary malady contributing to their attitude. For instance, a child who is overly tired, sick, hungry or simply the victim of a sudden change in routine may demonstrate troubling classroom behavior.

–       Classroom Environment

A classroom not designed for optimal learning may contribute to a student who refuses to behave. Poor seating arrangements, extreme temperatures or a high noise level are all distracting elements in a classroom that ultimately hinder the learning experience. The atmosphere in classrooms like these will result in behavior issues.

–     Problems with Curriculum

Some children may not feel challenged enough to behave properly. If the information taught is not appropriate for the learning abilities of an individual, they may mentally withdraw out of boredom or frustration, resulting in behavior problems. Additionally, a particular teacher’s instruction style may cause conflicts with a student, disrupting the learning process.

Table 15 shows that pupils were talking very loud to be heard by everybody (X=4.47) that made them highly disrupted behavior as well as when the teacher leave  the class and returned to class that the child was running around and or other acts that disturbed his/her classmates .  These may be deduced for the majority of the respondents were came from large and poor family  where parents were busy looking for earning a living and no enough or quality time for the children which usually leaves the younger siblings to the elder brothers or sisters and no time for the children to be taught a good behavior.

3.            Which among the factors associated with disruptive behavior affecting most the school performance of the pupils.

Table 16

Regression Analysis Showing Factors Associated With Disruptive Behaviour Affecting Most The School Performance Of The Pupils.

Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
(Constant) 3.358 1.240 2.708 0.010
Overt Inattentiveness -0.221 0.286 -0.128 -0.773 0.444
Aggressiveness 0.136 0.231 0.102 0.588 0.560
Persistent Tardiness & Laziness -0.595 0.235 -0.434 -2.527 0.016
Misbehavior 0.410 0.290 0.280 1.412 0.166
R = 0.424            R Square = 0.180             F = 2.081           Sig. = 0.102

As presented in table 16,the only predictor variable on school performance isPersistent Tardiness & Laziness with the beta weight of -0.434, p = 0.016. This means that school performance is most affected by Persistent Tardiness & Laziness. The null hypothesis of there is no variable that affects school performance is rejected.

The R squared value of the variable was 0.180. This indicates that 1.8% of the school performance is affected by the Persistent Tardiness &Laziness while 98.2% can be explained by other variables not included in the regression model.

The result of the relationships of the variables is given through the following equation:

Y = 3.358 + (-0.595) X1, where Y = School Performance and  X1 = Persistent Tardiness & Laziness.

Null Hypothesis:

The following null-hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

H01:   The disruptive behavior  has no significant effect on the school performance of Grade IV & V pupils in District of Cabanglasan.

H02:  There is no significant difference on profile of the Grade IV and V in Cabanglasan District in terms of the following a) gender, b) age, c) educational attainment of the parents and d) family economic background e) number of children in the classroom

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Foreign Sudies

Thesis / Dissertation of Disruptive Behavior of Children – Foreign Sudies

THE EFFECTS OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR TO THE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE OF GRADE IV & V PUPILS IN CABANGLASAN DISTRICT

Click here to guide you by Chapters – CHAPTER I; CHAPTER IICHAPTER IIIChapter IVChapter V

IntroductionConceptual FrameworkSchematic DiagramStatement of the Problem; Null HypothesisSignificance of the StudyScope & Delimitation;

CHAPTER II – Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents the review of related literature which guided the researcher in the conduct of this study. The literature will be taken from the relevant materials to give the necessary background; insight and to supplement the ideas in the present investigation.

Foreign Studies

Range of Violent Behavior; Scott S; Knapp M; Henderson J;  Maughan B: Financial cost of social exclusion: follow up study of antisocial children into  adulthood.  BMJ   2010; Disruptive behavior were in the form of overt inattentiveness, misbehavior, tardiness and laziness at school.  There are also children and adolescents that had a wide range of behaviors: explosive temper tantrums, physical aggression, sleeping, reading of papers or any magazines or books not related to the subject matters that was taken on that specific time.

The above mentioned outward expressions of children having disruptive behavior are related to the present study because children who have this kind of character shown at school will disrupt not only the teachers but also the doer themselves and all the individual present in the room.

Mental Health Association America, 2005 NMHA is a national organization dedicated promoting mental health through education and advocacy. What can be done if a child shows disruptive behavior?

The goals of treatment typically focus on helping the child to: learn how to control his/her anger; express anger and frustrations in appropriate ways; be responsible for his/her actions; and accept consequences. In addition, family conflicts, school problems, and community issues must be addressed.

Barton, P.E.2009, reported from his study that each child arrives in the world with a particular profile of temperamental traits, for example, getting excited quickly compared with being really laid back , being very active and restless compared with being placid and relaxed, and seeking out stimulation compared with shrinking from stimulation. Different temperamental traits drive different kinds of behavior. For example a child who is easily excitable may have more temper outbursts than a child who is very placid.

Kim-Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton R: What are the “warning signs” for violent behavior in children?Kim Cohen  J;  Caspi  A;  Moffitt  TE;  Harrington  HL;  Milne  BJ;  Poulton  R:  Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort.  Arch Gen Psychiatry   2005;

Children who have several risk factors  showed  the following behaviors should be carefully evaluated: intense anger, frequent loss of temper or blow-ups, extreme irritability, extreme impulsiveness, becoming easily frustrated.   Parents, teachers and institutions dealing with children such as school administrators will go hand in hand to understand and find ways to minimize such behavior.

Evidenced-based parent programs for reducing disruptive behavior in Children; Author: Ph.D. Candidate Gavita Oanalex, 2010 – The study is related to the study because it relates the cause and effect of disruptive behavior and it stressed that poor parenting practices are related to disruptive behaviors, while positive parenting practices are protective factors. Indeed, parents who engaged in more negative parenting practices, such as the use of harsh and inconsistent discipline, often report higher externalizing and internalizing problems in both children and adolescents.

(Burke et al., 2006; and Frick, 1994) has a study that children’s disruptive behavior has been linked with different aspects of parenting practices, such as monitoring, harassing and inconsistent discipline, etc. Wasserman et al., 2002, found out that punitive discipline of parents has been found to be a common risk factor for children with oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive, and internalizing behaviors.

           (Burke et al., 2002),has a study that physically aggressive punishment seems to be linked to child aggression, while low parental warmth/involvement was associated to oppositional child behavior.

Review of Related Literature and Studies in Chapter 2, click below:

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Foreign Studies

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Gender & Parents Intervention

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Overt Inattentive

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Tardiness and Laziness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Foreign Studies) – Misbehavior

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) – Aggressiveness

Chapter 2: Disruptive Behavior (Local Studies) –Economic Background & Justification

Thesis / dissertation of TEENAGE PREGNANCY: Introduction

“TEENAGE PREGNANCY: ITS EFFECT ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL YOUTH IN MARAMAG, BUKIDNON “

teenage-pregnancy- pic 2.jpg

Click these to guide you by chapter: Chapter IChapter 11Chapter IIIChapter IVChapter V

Teenage Pregnancy – Title Page

Teenage Pregnancy – About the Author

Introduction;  Statement of the ProblemNull HypothesisSignificance of the StudyConceptual FrameworkIndependent and Dependent VariablesScope and Delimitation

Chapter I

Introduction;

Over the past few decades, teenage pregnancy has become a public concern which has generated a great deal of attention in the locality. Increasing awareness of the social and economic consequences of teenage pregnancy has led to a consensus opinion among policy makers  and the public that teenage pregnancy and child bearing is a significant social problem. It has been linked to an array of other social issues, such as welfare dependency, child health and well-being, out of wedlock births, fatherhood responsibility, child abuse and neglect, school drop-out and workforce development. (Torivillas, The Philippine Star, 2013).

teenage preg 5.gif

There was a strong agreement that teenage pregnancy rate is still on the increase and and every increased there has an additional consequences of abortions and fetus losses and yet reducing the number of births by this age group remains an important goal, Scott (1981).

The frequency of teenage pregnancy among the youth is alarming and has become more or less a fact of life in many nations of the world including Philippines. This remains both culturally deleterious and personally destructive. Teenage pregnancy has lots of effects on Educational Development of teenagers who are victims of this phenomenon. The Philippine government and other religious institutions  are studying every angle to look for ways to reduce untimely pregnancy among teenager. These are many factors which have been recognized by researchers and authors as being responsible for teenage pregnancy. It has been noted and well documented that today’s teenagers face more sexual temptation than previous generations. They seem to be more aware of sex and susceptible to the dangers of illicit sex. Today’s society is more bombarded with sexually oriented materials in the environment. The teenager are more vulnerable to sexual temptations. Health and Home, Philippines, Pregnant at 16, p.12-13 &22).

teenage preg 4.jpg

According to Eruesgbefe, (2005). “Today’s teenagers have become more sexually active and promiscuous compared to their age mates of some thirty, forty or fifty years ago in the Nigerian situation”. He also asserted that, “The gradual departures from the traditions, customs and religious doctrine of the different ethnic groups on the premise of civilization have been largely responsible for this. Community and families must work hand in hand to shield their teenagers against these phenomena. Increases in both health and social problems are products of uncontrollable multiple sex partners among teenagers. Mainly because the youth cannot control their emotional feelings, they rush into untimely sex, in the belief that the act will be undetected.

Lazada Philippines         Lazada Philippines       Lazada Philippines

According to Albano (2001). In the Philippines, usually in a family, this category are not taught family life education by their parents and schools because of the sensitivity of the issue, this is contrary to the wide assumption that family life education is on. In practice, however, not much of sex education is taught in every Filipino family. Existing government family planning programs have been directed principally to married couples.

Maramag is still a growing community, cases of teenage pregnancy usually become a big issue to the neighbors and to the whole community. The family of the victim is in trauma discovering that their teenager was some months on her way already. Almost everybody is blaming the pregnant teenager of the consequences of her misdeeds. They focused their judgment to the victim but they did not bother to ask why and what were behind of indulging sex at teens and got pregnant not at the right time. The Philippine government through some of its agencies like Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)  and Department of Education (DepEd), introduced some strategies to minimize the increasing cases of pregnancy as observed after a decade in the Philippines. Sex education is being incorporated to the subject matters in school. RH bill could be a big help to let the teenagers know how to act about sex. Filipino families and communities is properly informed about their responsibilities to their youngsters with regards to sex.  While teenagers wherever they are must be reached to educate and be well informed how to counter early pregnancy.

Lazada Philippines

Religious sectors are also showing concerns about the teenagers by intensifying the activities at the church and detour  their interest while they are still young and not yet prepare to face the consequences brought about early sex. The churches now are also don’t want to left behind on nurturing the youths by instilling  to their minds  that early sex out of wed luck has consequences and the consequences hurt more than waiting. (Health and Home pp.13,2003).

teenage preg 5.gif

The researcher of this paper hope that after the study, she can impart some important strategies  and information she gained to the community, to the teachers, school administrators, parents and to the teenagers on how to minimize teenage pregnancy to students and out-of-school youth in Maramag, Bukidnon.

Click below to some parts of chapter 1 of this thesis:

Chapter I – Statement of the Problem

Chapter I – Null Hypothesis

Chapter I – Significance of the Study

Chapter I – Conceptual Framework;

Chapter – Independent and Dependent Variables

Chapter – Scope and Delimitation

Chapter – Definition of Terms

Helping, Guiding and Coaching You On Your Thesis Making;

Steps on making the “Background

10 Minutes Exercise Twice per Week Relieves Body Pains, Back aches and Colds

Carrots with Lemon is a Perfect Combination for Anti Oxidant

Learn English Online